Fysisk aktivitet i skolen, fra kunnskap til praksis: Muligheter og utfordringer ved å implementere fysisk aktiv læring som didaktisk verktøy i skolen


Ingrid Skage


physical activity, fysisk aktivitet, fysisk aktiv læring, aktiv skole


The premise for this thesis is that although we have reliable knowledge about what constitutes effective practice for increased physical activity in schools, we lack knowledge of how to implement this in practice. Combining physical activity with academic content, so called physically active lessons (PAL), is an approach to teaching that was developed to promote children’s health, academic learning and psychosocial wellbeing. This thesis highlights possibilities and challenges in implementing PAL in Norwegian schools. The different phases of implementation and the relationships between them were studied to improve our understanding of the factors that affect the implementation process. The main goal was to provide specific recommendations and strategies for sustainable implementation of PAL in schools.

This dissertation is part of the “Active School” project which started in 2013 as a joint project between the University of Stavanger and the municipality of Stavanger. The aim then was from a public health perspective, to develop a model for increasing physical activity in schools. Over the course of the school year 2014/2015 an intervention study was conducted, with PAL as the key intervention element. The current thesis consists of four studies. Each contribute to an improved understanding of the complex processes of change that schools must undergo when implementing PAL. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with teachers, school leaders and pupils.

The first study contributes to an improved understanding of the challenges tied to implementing PAL when the implementation strategy is mainly focused on research. It shows that inadequate training, lack of headteachers` support and insufficient time for planning and preparing the framework of the lessons were challenging barriers to overcome. The positive reception of PAL by pupils, as well as external support, have to a certain degree compensated for lacking involvement by school leadership. These are also the likely reasons for the high degree of implementation (fidelity). The results of the study point to the need for more thorough planning and system development in the implementation process.

The results from the second study show that two years after the implementation phase some teachers had discontinued their use of PAL. Most, however, had built PAL into their routine practice but had halved its use to about once a week; the main reason for this was the belief that PAL was less suited to teaching new subject matter than traditional classroom instruction. Headteachers had exercised little or no active leadership in this continuation phase, choosing instead to focus on other learning processes for basic skills in maths, reading and writing. Thus, if PAL is to continue to be a part of a school´s practice, then both the headteacher’s knowledge of the educational/teaching value of PAL and the teachers’ competency in combining physical activity with subject teaching will be of great importance.

The third study shows that headteachers play a decisive role in whether or not PAL, as a teaching method, is given priority. A lack of knowledge about PAL´s strengths, together with poor follow-up capacity and general “change fatigue” among teachers, were important reasons for giving PAL low priority. The results indicate that PAL is more likely to be adopted in schools where the programme meets an already clearly defined goal or improvement area. Furthermore, schools with a higher capacity for change are more likely to consider the benefits of implementing a new programme such as PAL.

The fourth study shows that an implementation strategy which focuses on stimulating teachers´ competency in combining physical activity with academic content is likely to have contributed to developing a sense of ownership to the inherent principles in PAL. Experiencing the advantages that PAL had over traditional classroom instruction inclined teachers to continue developing and renewing the relevant activities over time. Both external support and the exchange of experiences and reflection, between colleagues, have been important for teachers to development their competency. At the same time the results appear to indicate that for a whole school to adopt PAL represents a challenge.

The overall findings show that the children’s appreciation of PAL motivated in turn the teachers to use it. What the children enjoyed about PAL was having a more varied school day, the social interaction it brought with it and, for most of them, the physical activity in itself. Schools’ goals, as they appear in national curriculums and political guidelines, include emphasis on caring, personal growth and the building of interpersonal relationships. This study shows, however, that schools tend to concentrate mainly on academic achievement. Since PAL was developed to promote pupils´ learning, health and wellbeing, it seems a paradox that schools’ expectations regarding learning may hamper sustainable implementation of PAL.

Sustainable implementation requires a planned systematic process. Furthermore, a school’s leadership needs to underline the importance and relevance of PAL and to steward the relevant processes. The necessary training given to teachers should have as its goal that they develop a sense of ownership to the educational principles behind PAL. Teachers’ competency in implementing PAL can further be stimulated by the sharing of experiences and reflections concerning their pedagogical practice. External partners with competency in PAL and its implementation can help to facilitate the use of this approach to teaching and learning

Author Biography

Ingrid Skage

Department of Education and Sports Science, University of Stavanger
E-mail: ingrid.skage@uis.no


Ackroyd, S., & Karlsson, J. C. (2014). Critical realism, research techiques, and research design. I P. K. Edwards, J. O'Mahoney, & S. E. Vincent (Red.), Studying Organizations using Critical Realism: A Practical Guide (s. 21-45). Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Anderssen, S. A. (2013). Promoting healthy weight in school children: what does the HEIA study teach us about effective interventions. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(8), 469.


Austin, G., Bell, T., Caperchione, C., & Mummery, W. K. (2011). Translating research to practice: using the RE-AIM framework to examine an evidence-based physical activity intervention in primary school settings. Health Promotion Practice, 12(6), 932-941.


Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall.

Bartholomew, J., B., & Jowers, E. M. (2011). Physically active academic lessons in elementary children. Preventive Medicine, 52, 51-54.


Bartholomew, J. B., Jowers, E. M., Roberts, G., Fall, A. M., Errisuriz, V. L., & Vaughn, S. (2018). Active Learning Increases Children's Physical Activity across Demographic Subgroups. Translation Journal of American College of Sports Medicine, 3(1), 1-9.


Bedard, C., St John, L., Bremer, E., Graham, J. D., & Cairney, J. (2019). A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of physically active classrooms on educational and enjoyment outcomes in school age children.. PLoS ONE, 14(6), 1-19.


Benes, S., Finn, K. E., Sullivan, E. C., & Yan, Z. (2016). Teachers' perceptions of using movement in the classroom. The Physical Educator, 73(1), 110-129.


Berg, V. D., Salimi, R., Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., Chinapaw M, J. M., & Singh, A, S. (2017). "It's a Battle… You Want to Do It, but How Will You Get It Done?": Teachers' and Principals' Perceptions of Implementing Additional Physical activity in School for Academic Performance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(10), 1160.


Bernstein, B. (1999). Vertical and Horizontal Discourse: An essay. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 20(2), 157-173.


Best, J. R. (2010). Effects of physical activity on children's executive function: Contributions of experimental research on aerobic exercise. Developmental Review, 30(4), 331-351.


Bhaskar, R. (2008). A realist theory of science. London: Routledge.

Biesta, G. J. J., Allan, J., & Edwards, R. (2014). Making a difference in theory: the theory question in education and the education question in theory. London: Routledge.

Birken, S., Powell, B., Shea, C., Haines, E., Kirk, M., Leeman, J., Presseau, J., et al. (2017). Criteria for selecting implementation science theories and frameworks: results from an international survey. Implementation Science, 12(1), 124.


Blair, C., & Diamond, A. (2008). Biological processes in prevention and intervention: The promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure. Development and Psychopathol, 20(3), 899-911.


Blase, K. A., van Dyke, M., Fixen, D. L., & Bailay, F. W. (2012). Implementation science: key concepts, themes, and evidence for practioners in educational psychology. I I. B. Kelly, & D. Perkins (Red.), Implementation science for psychology in education. Cambridge University Press.

Blossing, U., Nyen, T., Söderström, Å., & Hagen Tønder, A. (2015). Local Drivers for Improvement Capacity: Six Types of School Organisations. Cham: Springer International Publishing.


Bopp, M., Saunders, R., & Lattimore, D. (2013). The Tug-of-War: Fidelity Versus Adaptation Throughout the Health Promotion Program Life Cycle. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 34(3), 193- 207.


Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2008). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.


Buch-Hansen, H., & Nielsen, P. (2005). Kritisk realisme. Frederiksberg: Roskilde Universitetsforlag.

Campbell, R., Rawlins, E., Wells, S., Kipping, R. R., Chittleborough, C. R., Peters, T. J., Campbell, R., et al. (2015). Intervention fidelity in a school-based diet and physical activity intervention in the UK: Active for Life Year 5. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 141-141.


Chaddock, L., Pontifex, M. B., Hillman, C. H., & Kramer, A. F. (2011). A Review of the Relation of Aerobic Fitness and Physical Activity to Brain Structure and Function in Children. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17(6), 975-985.


Christian, D., Todd, C., Davies, H., Rance, J., Stratton, G., Rapport, F., & Brophy, S. (2015). Community led active schools programme (CLASP) exploring the implementation of health interventions in primary schools: headteachers' perspectives. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 238.


Coburn, C. E. (2003). Rethinking Scale: Moving Beyond Numbers to Deep and Lasting Change. Educational Researcher, 32(6), 3-12.


Cothran, D. J., Kulinna, P. H., & Garn, A. C. (2010). Classroom Teachers and Physical Activity Integration. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(7), 1381-1388.


Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: choosing among five approaches (3. Utg.). Los Angeles: Sage publications.

Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design:Choosing Among Five Traditions. Los Angeles: Sage publications

Dalene, K. E., Anderssen, S. A., Andersen, L. B., Steene‐Johannessen, J., Ekelund, U., Hansen, B. H., & Kolle, E. (2018). Secular and longitudinal physical activity changes in population‐based samples of children and adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 28(1), 161-171.


Daly-Smith, A., Quarmby, T., Archbold, V. S. J., Routen, A. C., Morris, J. L., Gammon, C., Dorling, H., et al. (2019). Implementing physically active learning: Future directions for research, policy, and practice. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 9(1), 41-49.


Daly-Smith, A. J., Zwolinsky, S., McKenna, J., Tomporowski, P. D., Defeyter, M. A., & Manley, A. (2018). Systematic review of acute physically active learning and classroom movement breaks on children's physical activity, cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour: understanding critical design features. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 4(1).


Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Publications.

Diamond, A., & Ling, D. S. (2016). Conclusions about interventions, programs, and approaches for improving executive functions that appear justified and those that, despite much hype, do not. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 34-48.


Docherty, S., & Sandelowski, M. (1999). Focus on Qualitative Methods. Interviewing Children. Research in Nursing and Health, 22, 177-185.


Domitrovich, C. E., Bradshaw, C. P., Poduska, J. M., Hoagwood, K., Buckley, J. A., Olin, S., Ialongo, N. S., et al. (2008). Maximizing the implementation quality of evidence-based preventive interventions in schools: A conceptual framework. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 1(3), 6-28.


Domitrovich, C. E., Moore, J. B., & Greenberg, M. T. (2012). Maximizing the effectiveness of Social-Emotional Interventions for young children Through High-Quality Implementation of Evidence- Based Interventions. I B. Kelly & D. F. Perkins (Red.), Handbook of Implementation Science for psychology in Education (s. 207-229). New York: Cambridge University Press.


Donnelly, J. E., Greene, J. L., Gibson, C. A., Smith, B. K., Washburn, R. A., Sullivan, D. K., Williams, S. L., et al. (2009). Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC): A randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and diminish overweight and obesity in elementary school children. Preventive Medicine, 49(4), 336-341.


Donnelly, J. E., Hillman, C. H., Greene, J. L., Hansen, D. M., Gibson, C. A., Sullivan, D. K., Washburn, R. A., et al. (2017). Physical activity and academic achievement across the curriculum: Results from a 3-year cluster-randomized trial. Preventive Medicine, 99, 140-145.


Durlak, J. (2015). Studying Program Implementation Is Not Easy but It Is Essential. Prevention Science, 16(8), 1123-1127.


Durlak, J., & DuPre, E. (2008). Implementation Matters: A Review of Research on the Influence of Implementation on Program Outcomes and the Factors Affecting Implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3), 327-350.



Durlak, J., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A., Taylor, R., & Schellinger, K. (2011). The Impact of Enhancing Students' Social and Emotional Learning: A meta-Analysis of School-Based Universal Interventions. Child Development, 88 (1), 405-432.


Edwards, S. (2015). Active Learning in the Middle Grades. Middle School Journal, 46(5), 26-32.


Elias, M. J. (2010). Sustainability of Social-Emotional Learning and related Programs: Lessons from a Field Study. International Journal of Emotional Education, 2(1), 17-33.

Elias, M. J., Zins, J. E., Graczyk, P. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2003). Implementation, sustainability, and scaling up of social-emotional and academic innovations in public schools. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 303.


Ertesvåg, S. (2015). Praksis basert på forskning-ein utopi? In P. Roland & E. Westergård (Red.), Implementering. Å omsette, teorier, aktiviteter og strukturer i praksis. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Ertesvåg, S. K. (2012). Leiing av endringsarbeid i skulen. Oslo: Gyldendal akademisk.

Fedewa, A., & Ahn, S. (2011). The Effects of Physical Activity and Physical Fitness on Children's Achievement and Cognitive Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(3), 521-535.



Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, K.A., Friedman, R.M., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: a synthesis of the literature. Tampa, FL:University of South Florida.

Flaspohler, P., Duffy, J., Wandersman, A., Stillman, L., & Maras, M. A. (2008). Unpacking Prevention Capacity: An Intersection of Research‐to‐practice Models and Community‐centered Models. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3-4), 182-196.


FN-Sambandet (2018). Political declaration of the third high-level meeting of the General Assembly on the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. Hentet fra: https://ncdalliance.org/resources/political-declaration-of-the-third- high-level-meeting-of-the-general-assembly-on-the-prevention-and- control-of-non-communicable-diseases

Folkehelseloven. (2011). Lov om folkehelsearbeid. (LOV-2011-06-24- 29).

Friedman, I. A., & Kass, E. (2002). Teacher self-efficacy: A Classroom-organization conceptualization. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 675-686.


Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership & sustainability: system thinkers in action. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press Sage Ontario Principals' Council.

Fullan, M. (2016). The NEW meaning of educational change (5.utg.): New York: Routledge Teachers College Press.


Gardner, H. (2004). The unschooled mind: how children think and how schools should teach. New York: BasicBooks.


Gately, P., Curtis, C., & Hardaker, R. (2013). An evaluation in UK schools of a classroom-based physical activity programme - TAKE 10!: A qualitative analysis of the teachers' perspective. Education and Health, 31(4), 73-78.

Goh, T. L., Hannon, J. C., Webster, C. A., & Podlog, L. (2017). Classroom teachers' experiences implementing a movement integration program: Barriers, facilitators, and continuance. Teaching and Teacher Education, 66, 88-95.


Graneheim, U. H., Lindgren, B. M., & Lundman, B. (2017). Methodological challenges in qualitative content analysis: A discussion paper. Nurse Education Today, 56, 29-34.


Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today, 24(2), 105-112.


Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C. E., Gracyk, P. A., & Zins J., E. (2005). The Study of Implementation in School-Based Preventive Interventions: Theory, Research, and Practice. Rockville: U.S. Department of Health and Humane Services.


Greenhalgh, T., & Wieringa, S. (2011). Is it time to drop the 'knowledge translation' metaphor? A critical literature review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 104(12), 501-509.


Grieco, L. A., Jowers, E. M., Errisuriz, V. L., & Bartholomew, J. B. (2016). Physically active vs. sedentary academic lessons: A dose response study for elementary student time on task. Preventive Medicine, 89, 98-103.


Guskey, T. R. (2002). Professional Development and Teacher Change. Teachers and Teaching, 8(3), 381-391.


Hall, G. E. (2013). Evaluating change processes. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(3), 264-289.


Hall, G. E., Dirksen, D. J., & George, A. A. (2006). Measuring implementation in schools: Levels of use. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

Hall, G. E., & Hord, S. M. (2015). Implementing Change Patterns, Principles, and Potoles (4. utg.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Hargreaves, A. (2004). Lærerarbeid og skolekultur: læreryrkets forandring i en postmoderne tid. Oslo: Gyldendal.

Hargreaves, A., & Fink, D. (2006). Sustainable leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Helse -og omsorgsdepartementet (2009) Samhandlingsreformen. Rett behandling-på rettsted-til rett tid. (Meld. St. nr. 47. (2008-2009)).

Helse -og omsorgsdepartementet. (2019). Folkehelsemeldingen: Gode liv i et trygt samfunn. (Meld. St. nr. 19. (2018-2019)).

Helsedirektoratet. (2019). Nasjonale faglige råd om fysisk aktivitet for barn og unge. Hentet fra https://www.helsedirektoratet.no/faglige- rad/fysisk-aktivitet-for-barn-unge-voksne-eldre-og-gravide/fysisk- aktivitet-for-barn-og-unge

Hsieh, H.-F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277-1288.


Humphrey, N., Lendrum, A., Ashworth, E., Frearson, K., Buck, R., & Kerr, K. (2016). Implementation and process evaluation (IPE) for interventions in educational settings: An introductory handbook. Mancherster: The University of Manchester.

Iachini, A. L., Beets, M. W., Ball, A., & Lohman, M. (2014). Process evaluation of "Girls on the Run": Exploring implementation in a physical activity-based positive youth development program. Evaluation and Program Planning, 46(1), 1-9.


Ingulfsvann, L. S. (2018). Affected by movement. (Doktoravhandling). Oslo: Norges Idrettshøyskole, Oslo.

Janssen, I., & LeBlanc, A. G. (2010). Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(1), 40.


Jensen, K. (2007). The Desire to Learn: An Analysis of Knowledge- Seeking Practices among Professionals. Oxford Review of Education, 33(4), 489-502.


Kibbe, D. L., Hackett, J., Hurley, M., McFarland, A., Schubert, K. G., & Schultz, A. (2011). Ten years of take 10!: integrating physical activity with academic concepts in elementary school classrooms. Prev Med, 52, 43-50.


Kleven, T. A., & Hjardemaal, F. (2018). Innføring i pedagogisk forskningsmetode: en hjelp til kritisk tolking og vurdering (3. utg.). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Knowles, Z. R., Parnell, D., Ridgers, N., & Stratton, G. (2013). Learning from the experts: exploring playground experience and activities using a write and draw technique. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 10(406).


Kolle, E., Safvenbom, R., Ekelund, U., Solberg, R., Grydeland, M., & Anderssen, S. A. (2016). "Utprøving og evaluering av modeller for fysisk aktivitet for elever iungdomsskolen" En kunnskapsoversikt. Oslo: Norges idrettshøgskole.

Kolle, E., Steene-Johannessen J., Sävfenbom, R., Anderssen, S. A., Grydeland, M., Ekelund, U, Solberg, R. B. et al. (2019). Forsøk med økt fysisk aktivitet på ungdomstrinnet. Hovedrapport. Oslo: Utdaningsdirektoratet.

Kolle, E., Stokke, J. S., Hansen, B. H., & Andersen, S. (2012). Fysisk aktivitet blant 6-, 9- og 15-åringer i Norge: resultater fra en kartlegging i 2011. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet.

Kriemler, S., Meyer, U., Martin, E., Van Sluijs, E., Andersen, L., & Martin, B. (2011). Effect of school-based interventions on physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents: a review of reviews and systematic update. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(11), 923-930. Forskningsetikkloven. (2017). Lov om organisering av forskningsarbeid. (LOV-2017-04-28-23) Hentet fra: https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2017-04-28-23


Kunnskapsdepartementet. (2015). Fremtidens skole, fornyelse av fag og kompetanse. Oslo.

Kunnskapsdepartementet. (2017). Strategi for fagfornyelse av Kunnskapsløftet og kunnskapsløftet Samisk. Oslo.

Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2012). Det kvalitative forskningsintervju (2. utg.). Oslo: Gyldendal Akademiske.

Kvalø, S. E., Bru, E., Brønnick, K., & Dyrstad, S. M. (2017). Does increased physical activity in school affect children's executive function and aerobic fitness? Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 27, 1833-41.


Larsen, T. (2017). Viktige forutsetninger for implementering av programmer og tiltak i skolen. Lastet 28.02.20. Hentet fra: http://tidliginnsats.forebygging.no/Artikler--Kronikker/Viktige- forutsetninger-for-implementering-av-programmer-og-tiltak-i- skolen/

Larsen, T. (2005). Evaluating principals' and teachers' implementation of second step: a case study of four Norwegian primary schools (Doktoravhandling). Universitetet i Bergen.

Leithwood, K. (2018). Postscript: Five Insights About School Leaders' Policy Enactment. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 17(3), 391- 395.


Lendrum, A., & Humphrey, N. (2012). The Importance of Studying the Implementation of Interventions in School Settings. Oxford Review of Education, 38(5), 635-652.


Lerum, Ø., Bartholomew, J., McKay, H., Resaland, G. K., Tjomsland, H. E., Anderssen, S. A., Moe, V. F. et al. (2019). Active Smarter Teachers: Primary School Teachers' Perceptions and Maintenance of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention. Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, 4(17), 141- 147.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, Calif: Sage.


Lubans, D., Hillman, C., Faulkner, G., Beauchamp, M., Nilsson, M., Kelly, P., Richards, J., et al. (2016). Physical activity for cognitive and mental health in youth: a systematic review of mechanisms. Pediatrics, 138(3), e20161642.


Lund, T. (2005). The Qualitative-Quantitative Distinction: Some comments. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 49(2), 115-132.


Malterud, K., & Larson, P. (2014). Kvalitativa metoder i medicinsk forskning: en introduktion (3. utg.). Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Martin, R., & Murtagh, E. M. (2015). Preliminary findings of Active Classrooms: An intervention to increase physical activity levels of primary school children during class time. Teaching and Teacher Education, 52, 113-127.


Martin, R., & Murtagh, E. M. (2017a). Effect of Active Lessons on Physical Activity, Academic, and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 88(2), 149-168.


Martin, R., & Murtagh, E. M. (2017b). Teachers' and students' perspectives of participating in the 'Active Classrooms' movement integration programme. Teaching and Teacher Education, 63, 218- 230.


Mâsse, L. C., McKay, H., Valente, M., Brant, R., & Naylor, P.-J. (2012). Physical Activity Implementation in Schools:A 4-Year Follow-Up: A 4-Year Follow-Up. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43(4), 369-377.


Maxwell, J. A. (2012). A realist approach to qualitative research design. Los Angeles: Sage.

Maxwell, J. A. (2013). Qualitative research design: an interactive approach (3. Utg.). Los Angeles: Sage.

McMullen, J., Kulinna, P., & Cothran, D. (2014). Physical Activity Opportunities during the School Day: Classroom Teachers' Perceptions of Using Activity Breaks in the Classroom. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33(4), 511-527.


McMullen, J. M., Macphail, A., & Dillon, M. (2019). "I want to do it all day!"-Students' experiences of classroom movement integration. International Journal of Educational Research, 94, 52- 65.


McMullen, J. M., Martin, R., Jones, J., & Murtagh, E. M. (2016). Moving to learn Ireland - Classroom teachers' experiences of movement integration. Teaching and Teacher Education, 60, 321- 330.


Meyers, D., Durlak, J., & Wandersman, A. (2012). The Quality Implementation Framework: A Synthesis of Critical Steps in the Implementation Process. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50(3), 462-480.


Meyers, D., Katz, J., Chien, V., Wandersman, A., Scaccia, J., & Wright, A. (2012). Practical Implementation Science: Developing and Piloting the Quality Implementation Tool. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50(3), 481-496.


Michael, R. D., Webster, C. A., Egan, C. A., Nilges, L., Brian, A., Johnson, R., & Carson, R. L. (2019). Facilitators and Barriers to Movement Integration in Elementary Classrooms: A Systematic Review. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 90(2), 151-162.


Midthassel, U. V. (2015). Skoleleders rolle og implementeringsprosessen. In P. Roland & E. Westergård (Eds.), Implementering. Å omsette teorier, aktiviteter og strukturer i praksis. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Midthassel, U. V., Bru, E., & Idse, T. (2000). The Principal's Role in Promoting School Development Activity in Norwegian Compulsory Schools. School Leadership & Management, 20(2), 247-260.


Midthassel, U. V., & Ertesvag, S. K. (2008). Schools Implementing Zero: The Process of Implementing an Anti-Bullying Program in Six Norwegian Compulsory Schools. Journal of educational change, 9(2), 153-172.


Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook (3. utg.). Los Angeles: Sage.

Morton, K. L., Atkin, A. J., Corder, K., Suhrcke, M., & Van Sluijs, E. M. F. (2016). The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: A mixed-studies systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 17(2), 142-158.


Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage.


Muijs, D. (2011). Leadership and Organisational Performance: From Research to Prescription? International Journal of Educational Management, 25(1), 45-60.


Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J., Hartman, E., de Greeff, J. W., Doolaard, S., Bosker, R. J., & Visscher, C. (2016). Physically Active Math and Language Lessons Improve Academic Achievement: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatrics, 137(3), e20152743.


Mullender‐Wijnsma, M. J., Hartman, E., De Greeff, J. W., Bosker, R. J., Doolaard, S., & Visscher, C. (2015). Improving Academic Performance of School‐Age Children by Physical Activity in the Classroom: 1‐Year Program Evaluation. Journal of School Health, 85(6), 365-371.


Mwaanga, O., Dorling, H., Prince, S., & Fleet, M. (2018). Understanding the management challenges associated with the implementation of the physically active teaching and learning (PATL) pedagogy: a case study of three Isle of Wight primary schools. Managing Sport and Leisure, 23(4-6), 408-421.


Møller, J. (2004). Lederidentiteter i skolen: posisjonering, forhandlinger og tilhørighet. Oslo: Universitetsforlag.

Månsson, H. (Red.). (2015). Implementering - fra viden praksis på børne og ungdomsområdet. København: Dansk psykologiske forlag.

Naylor, P. J., & McKay, H. A. (2009). Prevention in the first place: schools a setting for action on physical inactivity. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(1),10.


Naylor, P. J., Nettlefold, L., Race, D., Hoy, C., Ashe, M. C., Wharf Higgins, J., & McKay, H. A. (2015). Implementation of school based physical activity interventions: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 72, 95-115.


NESH. (2016). Forskningsetiske retningslinjer for samfunnsvitenskap, humaniora, juss og teologi. Oslo: De nasjonale forskningsetiske komieer.

Nilsen, P. (2015). Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks. Implementation Science, 10(1), 53.



Nilssen, V. L. (2012). Analyse i kvalitative studier: den skrivende forskeren. Oslo: Universitetsforlag.

Norris, E., Shelton, N., Dunsmuir, S., Duke-Williams, O., & Stamatakis, E. (2015). Physically active lessons as physical activity and educational interventions: A systematic review of methods and results. Preventive Medicine, 72, 116-125.


Oakley, A., Strange, V., Bonell, C., Allen, E., & Stephenson, J. (2006). Health services research - Process evaluation in randomised controlled trials of complex interventions. British Medical Journal, 332, 413-16.


Ommundsen, Y. (2014). Fysisk aktiv læring i kroppsøvingsfaget. I I. M. Vingdal (Red.), Fysisk Aktiv Læring. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.

Oterkiil, C., & Ertesvåg, S. K. (2012). Schools' readiness and capacity to improve matter. Education Inquiry, 3(1), 71-92.


Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (4rd ed. ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.

Pesce, C. (2012). Shifting the focus from quantitative to qualitative exercise characteristics in exercise and cognition research. Journal of sport & exercise psychology, 34(6), 766-786.


Prince, M. (2004). Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(3), 223-231.


Proctor, E. K., Powell, B. J., Baumann, A. A., Hamilton, A. M., & Santens, R. L. (2012). Writing implementation research grant proposals: ten key ingredients. Implementation Science, 7, 96.


Quarmby, T., Daly-Smith, A., & Kime, N. (2018). 'You get some very archaic ideas of what teaching is … ': primary school teachers' perceptions of the barriers to physically active lessons. Education 3- 13, 1-14.


Rasberry, C. N., Lee, S. M., Robin, L., Laris, B. A., Russell, L. A., Coyle, K. K., & Nihiser, A. J. (2011). The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: A systematic review of the literature. Preventive Medicine, 52, 10-20.


Regjeringen. (2019). Granavold-plattformen. Politisk plattform. Lastet 13.03.20. Hentet fra: https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/politisk- plattform/id2626036/

Resaland, G., Aadland, E., Steene-Johannessen, J., Glosvik, O., Andersen, J., Kvalheim, O., Anderssen, S., et al. (2015). Active Smarter Kids (ASK): Rationale and design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of daily physical activity on childrens academic performance and risk factors for non- communicable diseases. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 709.


Resaland, G. K., Aadland, E., Moe, V. F., Aadland, K. N., Skrede, T., Stavnsbo, M., Anderssen, S. A., et al. (2016). Effects of physical activity on schoolchildren's academic performance: The Active Smarter Kids (ASK) cluster-randomized controlled trial. Preventive Medicine, 91, 322-328.


Resaland, G. K., Andersen, L. B., Mamen, A., & Anderssen, S. A. (2011). Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness: the Sogndal school- intervention study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21(2), 302.


Resaland, G. K., Moe, V. F., Bartholomew, J. B., Andersen, L. B., McKay, H. A., Anderssen, S. A., & Aadland, E. (2018). Gender- specific effects of physical activity on children's academic performance: The Active Smarter Kids cluster randomized controlled trial. Preventive Medicine, 106, 171-176.


Riley, N., Lubans, D. R., Holmes, K., & Morgan, P. J. (2016). Findings From the EASY Minds Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial: Evaluation of a Physical Activity Integration Program for Mathematics in Primary Schools. Journal of physical activity & health, 13(2), 198-206.


Riley, N., Lubans, D. R., Morgan, P. J., & Young, M. (2015). Outcomes and process evaluation of a programme integrating physical activity into the primary school mathematics curriculum: The EASY Minds pilot randomised controlled trial. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 18(6), 656.


Roehrig, G. H., Kruse, R. A., & Kern, A. (2007). Teacher and school characteristics and their influence on curriculum implementation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(7), 883-907.


Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5. utg.). New York: Free Press.

Roland, P. (2012). Implementering av skoleutviklingsprogrammet Respekt. (Doktoravhandling, 156), Universitetet i Stavanger.

Routen, A. C., Chalkley, A. E., & Sherar, L. B. (2017). Getting a GRIP (getting research into practice) on movement integration in the school classroom. Physical Therapy Reviews, 22(3-4), 139-146.


Routen, A. C., Johnston, J. P., Glazebrook, C., & Sherar, L. B. (2018). Teacher perceptions on the delivery and implementation of movement integration strategies: The CLASS PAL (Physically Active Learning) Programme. International Journal of Educational Research, 88, 48-59.


Rødne, T. (2009). Kriterier for det vitskaplege ved kvalitativt orientert samfunnsforsking: ein studie med grunnlag i kvalitativt orienterte hovudfagsoppgåver og doktorgradsavhandlingar ved norske universitet (Doktoravhandling). Universitetet i Tromsø.

Scheirer, M. A. (2005). Is Sustainability Possible? A Review and Commentary on Empirical Studies of Program Sustainability. American Journal of Evaluation, 26(3), 320-347.


Seljebotn, P. H., Skage, I., Riskedal, A., Olsen, M., Kvalø, S. E., & Dyrstad, S. M. (2019). Physically active academic lessons and effect on physical activity and aerobic fitness. The Active School study: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Preventive Medicine Reports, 13, 183-188.


Singh, A. S., Saliasi, E., van den Berg, V., Uijtdewilligen, L., de Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., Chinapaw, M. J. M., et al. (2019). Effects of physical activity interventions on cognitive and academic performance in children and adolescents: a novel combination of a systematic review and recommendations from an expert panel. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 53(10), 640-647.


Skage, I., & Dyrstad, S. M. (2016). fysisk aktivitet som pedagogisk læringsmetode i skolen. Fysioterapeuten, 5, 20-25.

Smith, C., & Elger, T. (2014). Critical realism and interviewing subjects. I P. K. Edwards, J. T. Mahoney, & S. E. Vincent (Red.), Studying Organizations using Critical Realism: A practical Guide (s. 109-131). Oxford: University Press.


Spillane, J. P., Reiser, B. J., & Reimer, T. (2002). Policy Implementation and Cognition: Reframing and Refocusing Implementation Research. Review of Educational Research, 72(3), 387-431.


Stake, R. E. (2010). Qualitative research: studying how things work. New York: Guilford Press.

Steckler, A., & Linnan, L. (2002). Process evaluation for public health interventions and research (1. utg.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Steene‐Johannessen, J., Anderssen, S. A., Bratteteig, Dalhaug M., E., Andersen, I.D., Andersen, O.K., Dalene, K. E., et. al. (2019). Kartlegging av fysisk aktivitet, sedat tid og fysisk form blant barn og unge 2018 (ungKan3). (Rapport). Oslo: Norges idrettshøgskole.

Stylianou, M., Kulinna, P. H., & Naiman, T. (2016). '…because there's nobody who can just sit that long': Teacher perceptions of classroom-based physical activity and related management issues. European Physical Education Review, 22(3), 390-408.


Tangen, R. (2014). Balancing Ethics and Quality in Educational Research-the Ethical Matrix Method. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 58(6), 678-694.


Thagaard, T. (2003). Systematikk og innlevelse: en innføring i kvalitativ metode (2. utg.). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Thoonen, E. E. J., Sleegers, P. J. C., Oort, F. J., Peetsma, T. T. D., & Geijsel, F. P. (2011). How to Improve Teaching Practices: The Role of Teacher Motivation, Organizational Factors, and Leadership Practices. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(3), 496-536.


Tjomsland Eikeland, H., Odberg, A.-H., & Leversen, I. (2016). Utprøving og evaluering av modeller for fysisk aktivitet for elever i ungdomsskolen. En erfaringsoversikt (Rapport 1/2016). Bergen: Nasjonalt Senter for mat, helse og fysisk aktivitet.

Todd, C., Christian, D., Davies, H., Rance, J., Stratton, G., Rapport, F., & Brophy, S. (2015). Headteachers' prior beliefs on child health and their engagement in school based health interventions: a qualitative study. BMC Research Notes, 8(1), 161.


Utdanningsdirektoratet. (2020). Lærerplanverket. Overordnet del- verdier og prinsipper for grunnopplæringen. Lastet 26.04.20. Hentet fra https://www.udir.no/laring-og- trivsel/lareplanverket/

van Sluijs, E., McMinn, A., & Griffin, S. (2007). Effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents: systematic review of controlled trials. British Medical Journal, 335 (7622), 703-707).


Vazou, S., Pesce, C., Lakes, K., & Smiley-Oyen, A. (2019). More than one road leads to rome: A narrative review and meta-analysis of physical activity interventions effects on cognition in youth. International Journal of Sports and Exercise Psychology, 17(1), 153-178.


Vingdal, I. M. (Red.). (2014). Fysisk aktiv læring. Oslo: Gyldendal akademisk, 2014.

Wan, E. (2005). Teacher Empowerment: Concepts, Strategies, and Implications for Schools in Hong Kong. Teachers College Record, 107(4), 842-861.

Wandersman, A., Duffy, J., Flaspohler, P., Noonan, R., Lubell, K., Stillman, L., Saul, J., et al. (2008). Bridging the Gap Between Prevention Research and Practice: The Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3/4), 171-181.


Watson, A., Timperio, A., Brown, H., Best, K., & Hesketh, K. D. (2017). Effect of classroom-based physical activity interventions on academic and physical activity outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 114.


Watson, A., Timperio, A., Brown, H., & Hesketh, K. (2019). Process evaluation of a classroom active break (ACTI-BREAK) program for improving academic-related and physical activity outcomes for students in years 3 and 4. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 633.


Webster, C., Caputi, P., Perreault, M., Doan, R., Doutis, P., & Weaver, R. G. (2013). Elementary Classroom Teachers' Adoption of Physical Activity Promotion in the Context of a Statewide Policy: An Innovation Diffusion and Socio-Ecologic Perspective. Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 32(4), 419-440.


Webster, C. A., Russ, L., Vazou, S., Goh, T. L., & Erwin, H. (2015). Integrating movement in academic classrooms: understanding, applying and advancing the knowledge base. Obesity Reviews 16, 691-701.


Webster, C. A., Zarrett, N., Cook, B. S., Egan, C., Nesbitt, D., & Weaver, R. G. (2017). Movement integration in elementary classrooms: Teacher perceptions and implications for program planning. Evaluation and Program Planning, 61, 134-143.


Weick, K. E. (1976). Educational Organizations as Loosely Coupled Systems. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21(1), 1-19.



Wolfenden, L., Nathan, N. K., Sutherland, R., Yoong, S. L., Hodder, R. K., Wyse, R. J., Williams, C. M., et al. (2017). Strategies for enhancing the implementation of school-based policies or practices targeting risk factors for chronic disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2017(11), CD011677.


Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5. Utg.). Los Angeles, California: Sage publications

Cover image



October 9, 2020


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.