«Vi vet at vi skal jobbe med begrep, men ikke så mye annet»: En studie av læreres forståelse av undervisning som støtter utvikling av akademisk språk i språkheterogene klasserom på 5.-7. trinn

Keywords: flerspråklige elever, akademisk språk, språkutvikling, språkheterogenitet, språkopplæring

Synopsis

Avhandlingen «Vi vet vi skal jobbe med begrep, men ikke så mye annet»: En studie av læreres forståelse av undervisning som støtter utvikling av akademisk språk i språkheterogene klasserom på 5.-7. trinn har sin bakgrunn i en interesse for læreres undervisning av flerspråklige elever innenfor rammene av ordinær undervisning. I klasserommet står lærere ofte i det dilemmaet at de skal undervise med utgangspunkt i fagtekster, samtidig som de skal ivareta opplæringsbehovet til elever som strever med å forstå slike tekster, deriblant flerspråklige elever. Elever som strever med å forstå fagtekster, har ofte lite kjennskap til det akademiske språket som i økende grad karakteriserer fagtekstene de møter i skoleløpet (Chall & Jacobs, 2003). I dette avhandlingsprosjektet undersøkes hvordan lærere forstår undervisning som støtter utvikling av akademisk språk i språkheterogene klasserom. I prosjektet rettes det særlig oppmerksomhet mot det fagovergripende akademiske språket. Studien står i en sosiokulturell forståelsesramme basert på Vygotskijs (2001) språkutviklingsteori. Innenfor denne forståelsesrammen, anlegges et literacy-perspektiv der utvikling av akademisk språk forstås som å ha gode vilkår i tett tilknytning til arbeid med tekster (Skaftun, 2015; Wong Fillmore & Snow, 2018). I analysene av datamaterialet anvendes flere begreper for å utforske lærernes ytringer og utøvelse av undervisningen. Gees (2015) begrep diskurs er sentralt i avhandlingen for å beskrive sosiale strukturer. Der Lave og Wengers (1991) begrep praksisfellesskap beskriver det profesjonsfelleskapet lærerne er en del av, er Gees (2014) begrep forestillingsverdener anvendt for å belyse forståelsen lærerne i et profesjonsfellesskap har av akademisk språk og undervisning som støtter utviklingen av et slikt språk.

Materiale i avhandlingens tre delstudier kommer fra 15 engasjerte lærere på 5.-7. trinn. Den første delstudien er et fokusgruppeintervju med åtte lærere. I denne delstudien rettes oppmerksomheten mot lærernes forståelse av akademisk vokabular og hvordan de skisserer mulige tiltak for å støtte utviklingen av et slikt vokabular. Den andre delstudien er en dybdeintervjustudie. I dybdeintervjustudien utvides språkperspektivet, og ni læreres forståelse av akademisk språk utover vokabular undersøkes, samt hvordan de forstår sin egen tilpassede undervisning for å støtte flerspråklige elevers tekstforståelse. For ytterligere å undersøke lærernes forståelse av undervisning som støtter utviklingen av akademisk språk, retter den tredje studien oppmerksomheten mot lærernes oppfølging av elevytringer i samtaler om fagtekster.

Fokusgruppeintervjuet viser at lærerne primært hadde oppmerksomhet mot fagord, og at de utviklet en gryende forståelse av skolens ansvar for å støtte flerspråklige elevers utvikling av akademisk vokabular, men at de bare i begrenset grad skisserte fremtidige tiltak. Samtidig viste noen av lærerne en forståelse av at ordinnlæring i større grad burde være en integrert del av tekstarbeid. I dybdeintervjustudien uttrykte lærerne en forståelse av at akademisk språk omfatter mer enn vokabular, men flere var usikre på sin egen tilpassede undervisning for flerspråklige elever. I observasjonsstudien rettet lærerne oppmerksomheten mot ordforklaringer i samtaler om fagtekster. De inkluderte i stor grad elevinnspill i samtalene om ord og tekstens tema, men elevene ble i liten grad oppfordret til å utdype ytringene sine og til å bruke ord som var blitt forklart.

Avhandlingen som helhet viser at lærerne i stor grad forstod undervisning som støtter utvikling av akademisk språk som å være ensbetydende med ordforklaringer i samtaler om tekstens tema. Dermed forble støtte til utvikling av akademisk språk- og leseferdigheter i bakgrunnen. Samtidig viser intervjuene at lærernes forståelse av akademisk språk var mer utfyllende enn det som kom til uttrykk i observert undervisning, og de uttrykte et ønske om mer kunnskap om hvordan de best kan støtte flerspråklige elevers tekstforståelse. Avhandlingsarbeidet bidrar med kunnskap som er nødvendig for å kunne igangsette målrettede tiltak i lærerutdanninger og blant lærere. Tiltakene må være rettet mot å styrke lærernes kunnskap om akademisk språk, og de må få redskaper til å lede læringsprosesser som støtter alle elevers utvikling av akademisk språk som en integrert del av fag- og leseopplæringen.

Author Biography

Hege Rangnes

Førsteamanuensis
Universitetet i Stavanger
Fakultet for utdanningsvitenskap og humaniora
Nasjonalt senter for leseopplæring og leseforsking
hege.rangnes@uis.no

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Cover for «Vi vet at vi skal jobbe med begrep, men ikke så mye annet»: En studie av læreres forståelse av undervisning som støtter utvikling av akademisk språk i språkheterogene klasserom på 5.-7. trinn
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September 17, 2021

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