Bilingualism: Advantages and Disadvantages in Cognitive Processing, Language and Reading Comprehension

Authors

Hilde Lowell Gunnerud
Keywords: cognitive processing, language, reading comprehension, bilingualism

Synopsis

The overall aim of this study is, as suggested by Bialystok (2009), to investigate whether bilingual learners have an advantage in executive functions and a disadvantage in language compared to monolingual learners. In addition, the thesis examines whether the theory holds true for different groups of bilingual learners and different aspects of language and cognitive domains.

The study has a multi-method approach. It consists of a meta-analysis investigating the bilingual advantage theory in executive functions (EF) and two studies based on data from the longitudinal study The Stavanger Project—The Learning Child (The Stavanger Project). Study 2 uses data from the first wave of The Stavanger Project. The study investigates Norwegian language comprehension in a monolingual control group and three different groups of bilingual children at 2 years and 9 months. The three bilingual groups had different amounts of exposure to Norwegian. The third article is based on data from the fourth wave of The Stavanger Project and investigates different aspects of Norwegian language and reading skills across bilingual learners and a monolingual control group of 5th graders. The sample in Study 3 is a subsample of the participants in Study 2; thus, the bilingual learners had been systematically exposed to Norwegian by early childhood education and care (ECEC) attendance and schools from at least the age of 2.

The thesis contributes three main findings. The first article provides little support for a bilingual advantage in overall EF. Moderator analysis targeting sample characteristics of bilingual subgroups that are theorized to have the largest bilingual advantage in EF shows no relation to the overall outcome of the analysis of differences in executive functions between bilingual and monolingual learners. Furthermore, there is limited evidence for a bilingual advantage in any EF domain. There is an advantage in switching, but not for all populations of bilingual learners.

The second article shows that bilingual toddlers have weaker second language comprehension skills than monolingual toddlers, but the differences in second language skills between different groups of bilingual learners are not fully explained by the time on task hypothesis. Bilingual children with mostly first language (L1) input at home had poorer Norwegian language comprehension than the two other bilingual groups. Bilingual toddlers with both first and second language input at home and bilingual toddlers with mostly second language input at home had equivalent second language skills. It therefore seems likely that a threshold value exists for the amount of second language input necessary to develop good second language skills rather than a direct relationship between the amount of input and language skills.

The third article shows that even after long and massive exposure to the second language, early bilingual 5th graders have lower vocabulary depth, listening comprehension and reading comprehension in their second language than their monolingual peers. The difference cannot be explained by differences in socioeconomic status (SES). Their decoding and text cohesion vocabulary skills are equal to those of monolingual learners. In contrast to some other studies, the strength of the predictive path between different aspects of language skills and reading comprehension was found to be equal across language groups.

In total, these findings contribute to the knowledge base of what is typical development of language, reading skills and executive functions for different groups of bilingual learners. Without information of what is typical development for different bilingual groups, it is difficult to identify atypical development. Hence, the knowledge this thesis provides can support educators in identifying bilingual learners with learning disabilities earlier and with greater certainty, thereby reducing the risk of both over- and under-identifying bilingual learners in need of special needs education.

Author Biography

Hilde Lowell Gunnerud

Associate Professor
Norwegian Reading Centre, University of Stavanger
Norway
E-mail: hilde.gunnerud@uis.no

References

Abedi, J. (2008). Classification System for English Language Learners: Issues and Recommendations. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 27(3), 17-31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3992.2008.00125.x

Aben, B., Stapert, S., & Blokland, A. (2012). About the Distinction between Working Memory and Short-Term Memory. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 301-301. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00301

Abrahamsson, N., & Hyltenstam, K. (2009). Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: Listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny. Language learning, 59(2), 249-306. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00507.x

Adesope, O. O., Lavin, T., Thompson, T., & Ungerleider, C. (2010). A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive Correlates of Bilingualism. Review of Educational Research, 80(2), 207-245. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654310368803

Alloway, T. P., Gathercole, S. E., Willis, C., & Adams, A.-M. (2004). A structural analysis of working memory and related cognitive skills in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 87(2), 85-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2003.10.002

Anderson, R. C., & Freebody, P. (1981). Vocabulary knowledge. In Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews (pp. 77-117). Newark: DE: International Reading association.

Archibald, & Gathercole. (2006). Short term and working memory in specific language impairment. International Journal of Communication Disorder, Vol 41(No. 6), s. 675- 693. https://doi.org/10.1080/13682820500442602

Armitage, S. G. (1946). An analysis of certain psychological tests used for the evaluation of brain injury. Psychological monographs, 60(1). https://doi.org/10.1037/h0093567

Armon-Lotem, S. (2018). SLI in bilingual development: How do we approach assessment? In A. Bar-On, D. Ravid, & E. Dattner (Eds.), Handbook of Communications Disorders: Theoretical, Empirical, and Applied Linguistic Perspectives. Boston, United States: De Gruyter, Inc.

Artiles, A. J., & Ortiz, A. A. (2002). English Language Learners With Special Education Needs. Identification, Assessment and Instruction: Centre for Applied Linguistics, Delta Systems Co. Inc

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (2006). Developing literacy in second- language learners: report of the National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Babayiğit, S. (2015). The relations between word reading, oral language, and reading comprehension in children who speak English as a first (L1) and second language (L2): a multigroup structural analysis. Reading and Writing, 28(4), 527-544. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-014-9536-x

Baddely, S. D., & Hitch, G. I. (1986). Working memory. New York: Oxford University Press.

Baggetta, P., & Alexander, P. A. (2016). Conceptualization and Operationalization of Executive Function. Mind, Brain, and Education, 10(1), 10-33. https://doi.org/10.1111/mbe.12100

Bakken, A. (2003). Minoritetsspråklig ungdom i skolen: reproduksjon av ulikhet eller sosial mobilitet? (Vol. 15/2003). https://doi.org/10.7577/nova/rapporter/2003/15

Bakken, A., & Elstad, J. I. (2012). For store forventninger?: Kunnskapsløftet og ulikhetene i grunnskolekarakterer (Vol. 7/2012). https://doi.org/10.7577/nova/rapporter/2012/7

Barac, R., & Bialystok, E. (2012). Bilingual Effects on Cognitive and Linguistic Development: Role of Language, Cultural Background, and Education. Child Development, 83(2), 413- 422. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01707.x

Barac, R., Bialystok, E., Castro, D. C., & Sanchez, M. (2014). The cognitive development of young dual language learners: A critical review. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 699-714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.02.003

Barne- likestillings- og inkluderingsdepartementet. (2012). Meld. st 6. En helhetlig integreringspolitikk.

Barrena, A., Ezeizabarrena, M. J., & Garcia, I. (2008). Influence of the Linguistic Environment on the Development of the Lexicon and Grammar of Basque Bilingual Children. In C. P. Vidal, M. Juan- Garau, & A. Bel (Eds.), A portrait of the young in the new multilingual Spain. Clevedon, Buffalo, Toronto Multilingual Matters LTD. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847690241-008

Bellocchi, S., Tobia, V., & Bonifacci, P. (2017). Predictors of reading and comprehension abilities in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal study on a transparent language. Reading and Writing, 30(6), 1311-1334. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-017-9725-5

Berko, J. (1958). The child's learning of English morphology. Word, (14), 150-177. https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1958.11659661

Berthiaume, R., Daigle, D., & Desrochers, A. (2018). Morphological Processing and Literacy Development: Current Issues and Research: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315229140

Best, J. R., & Miller, P. H. (2010). A developmental perspective on executive function. Child Development, 81(6), 1641-1660 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01499.x

Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., & Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(4), 327-336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2011.01.007

Bialystok, E. (2001a). Bilingualism in development: Language, literacy, and cognition: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511605963

Bialystok, E. (2001b). Metalinguistic aspects of bilingual processing. Annual review of applied linguistics, 21, 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190501000101

Bialystok, E. (2009). Bilingualism: The good, the bad, and the indifferent. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12(1), 3-11. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728908003477

Bialystok, E. (2010). Global-Local and Trail-Making Tasks by Monolingual and Bilingual Children: Beyond Inhibition. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 93-105. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015466

Bialystok, E. (2017a). The bilingual adaptation: How minds accommodate experience. Psychological Bulletin, 143(3), 233-262. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000099

Bialystok, E. (2018). Bilingualism and executive functions: What is the connection? In D. Miller, F. Bayram, J. Rothman, & L. Serratrice (Eds.), Bilingual Cognition and Language (pp. 283-306). Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Bejamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.18040.bia

Bialystok, E., & Barac, R. (2012). Emerging bilingualism: Dissociating advantages for metalinguistic awareness and executive control. Cognition, 122(1), 67-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2011.08.003

Bialystok, E., Barac, R., Blaye, A., & Poulin-Dubois, D. (2010). Word mapping and executive functioning in young monolingual and bilingual children. Journal of Cognition and Development, 11(4), 485-508. https://doi.org/10.1080/15248372.2010.516420

Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., Binns, M. A., Ossher, L., & Freedman, M. (2014). Effects of bilingualism on the age of onset and progression of MCI and AD: Evidence from executive function tests. Neuropsychology, 28(2), 290. https://doi.org/10.1037/neu0000023

Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., Green, D. W., & Gollan, T. H. (2009). Bilingual Minds. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10(3), 89-129. https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100610387084

Bialystok, E., & Feng, X. (2011). Language proficiency and its implications for monolingual and bilingual children. In A. Y. Durgunoglu & C. Goldenberg (Eds.), Language and literacy development in bilingual settings (pp. 121-138). New York: The Guildford Press.

Bialystok, E., Luk, G., Peets, K., F., & Yang, S. (2010). Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism-Language and Cognition, 13(4), 525-531. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990423

Bialystok, E., Luk, G., & Kwan, E. (2005). Bilingualism, Biliteracy, and Learning to Read: Interactions Among Languages and Writing Systems. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(1), 43-61. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr0901_4

Bialystok, E., Peets, K. F., & Moreno, S. (2014). Producing bilinguals through immersion education: Development of metalinguistic awareness. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(1), 177-191. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716412000288

Bialystok, E., & Viswanathan, M. (2009). Components of executive control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures. Cognition, 112(3), 494-500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.06.014

Biedroń, A., & Birdsong, D. (2019). Highly proficient and gifted bilinguals. In A. De Houwer & L. Ortega (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Bilingualism (pp. 307-0323): Cambridge University Press.

Biemiller, A., & Slonim, N. (2001). Estimating root word vocabulary growth in normative and advantaged populations: Evidence for a common sequence of vocabulary acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(3), 498. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.93.3.498

Birdsong, D. (2005). Interpreting age effects in second language acquisition. Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches, 109, 127.

Birdsong, D. (2006). Age and second language acquisition and processing: A selective overview. Language learning, 56, 9-49. Bishop, D. V. M. (2003a). The children's communication checklist-CCC-2 (2.ed.). London, England: Psychological Corporation. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00353.x

Bishop, D. V. M. (2003b). Test for Reception of Grammar. Version 2. (TROG -2) Manual. London: Harcourt Assessment.

Bishop, D. V. M., Snowling, M. J., Thompson, P. A., Greenhalgh, T., & the CATALISE-2 consortium. (2017). Phase 2 of CATALISE: a multinational and multidisciplinary Delphi consensus study of problems with language development: Terminology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(10), 1068-1080. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12721

Bjerkan, K. M., Monsrud, M.-B., & Thurmann-Moe, A. C. (2013). Ordforråd hos flerspråklige barn: pedagogiske og spesialpedagogiske utfordringer. Oslo: Gyldendal akademisk.

Black, M. M., Walker, S. P., Fernald, L. C. H., Andersen, C. T., DiGirolamo, A. M., Lu, C., . . . Grantham-McGregor, S. (2017). Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course. The Lancet, 389(10064), 77-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31389-7

Blair, C. (2016). Developmental science and executive function. Current directions in psychological science, 25(1), 3-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721415622634

Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2015). School readiness and self-regulation: A developmental psychobiological approach. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 711-731. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015221

Blom, E., & Bosma, E. (2016). The sooner the better? An investigation into the role of age of onset and its relation with transfer and exposure in bilingual Frisian-Dutch children. Journal of Child Language, 43(3), 581-607. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000915000574

Bohman, T. M., Bedore, L. M., Peña, E. D., Mendez-Perez, A., & Gillam, R. B. (2010). What you hear and what you say: Language performance in Spanish-English bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13(3), 325-344. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050903342019

Bonifacci, P., & Tobia, V. (2016). Crossing barriers: Profiles of reading and comprehension skills in early and late bilinguals, poor comprehenders, reading impaired, and typically developing children. Learning and Individual Differences, 47, 17-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.12.013

Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P., & Rothstein, H. R. (2011). Introduction to meta-analysis: John Wiley & Sons.

Borenstein, M., Rothstein, D., & Cohen, J. (2005). Comprehensive meta-analysis: A computer program for research synthesis [computer software]. Englewood: NJ: Biostat.

Bornstein, M. H., & Bradley, R. H. (2014). Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410607027

Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. 108(3), 624. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.108.3.624

Bowers, E. P., & Vasilyeva, M. (2011). The relation between teacher input and lexical growth of pre- schoolers. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32(1), 221-241. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716410000354

Brennan, R. L. (2010). Generalizability Theory and Classical Test Theory. Applied Measurement in Education, 24(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/08957347.2011.532417

Bridges, K., & Hoff, E. (2014). Older sibling influences on the language environment and language development of toddlers in bilingual homes. Applied Psycholinguistics., 35(2), 225-241. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716412000379

Brinchmann, E. I., Hjetland, H. N., & Lyster, S. A. H. (2016). Lexical Quality Matters: Effects of Word Knowledge Instruction on the Language and Literacy Skills of Third‐ and Fourth‐Grade Poor Readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 51(2), 165-180. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.128

Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Publications.

Brydges, C. R., Reid, C. L., Fox, A. M., & Anderson, M. J. I. (2012). A unitary executive function predicts intelligence in children. 40(5), 458-469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2012.05.006

Bull, R., Espy, K. A., & Wiebe, S. A. (2008). Short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschoolers: Longitudinal predictors of mathematical achievement at age 7 years. Developmental neuropsychology, 33(3), 205-228. https://doi.org/10.1080/87565640801982312

Burgoyne, K., Whiteley, H., & Hutchinson, J. M. (2011). The development of comprehension and reading‐related skills in children learning English as an additional language and their monolingual, English‐speaking peers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 344-354. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709910X504122

Cain, K., Patson, N., & Andrews, L. (2005). Age-and ability-related differences in young readers' use of conjunctions. Journal of Child Language, 32(4), 877-892. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000905007014

Capps, R., Fix, M., Murray, J., Ost, J., Passel, J. S., & Herwantoro, S. (2005). The new demography of America's schools: Immigration and the No Child Left Behind Act. Urban Institute (NJ1). https://doi.org/10.1037/e723122011-001

Carlisle, J. F. (2000). Awareness of the structure and meaning of morphologically complex words: Impact on reading. Reading and writing, 12(3), 169-190. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008131926604

Carlisle, J. F., & Feldman, L. (1995). Morphological awareness and early reading achievement. In Feldman (Ed) Morphological aspects of language processing (pp. 189-210) Hillsdale, New Jersey, Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Carroll, J. B. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers college record, 64(8), 723-733.

Chen, X., Ramirez, G., Luo, Y., Geva, E., & Ku, Y.-M. (2012). Comparing vocabulary development in Spanish- and Chinese- speaking ELLs: the effects of metalinguistic and sociocultural factors. Reading and Writing, 25(8), 1991-2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9318-7

Chondrogianni, V. (2018). Child L2 acquisition. In D. Miller, F. Bayram, J. Rothman, & L. Serratrice (Eds.), Bilingual Cognition and Language. The state of the science across its subfields. (pp. 103-126). Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.54.06cho

Chondrogianni, V., & Marinis, T. (2011). Differential effects of internal and external factors on the development of vocabulary, tense morphology and morpho-syntax in successive bilingual children. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1(3), 318-345. https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.1.3.05cho

Cirino, P. T., Ahmed, Y., Miciak, J., Taylor, W. P., Gerst, E. H., & Barnes, M. A. (2018). A framework for executive function in the late elementary years. Neuropsychology, 32(2), 176. https://doi.org/10.1037/neu0000427

Collier, V. P. (1987). Age and Rate of Acquisition of Second Language for Academic Purposes. TESOL quarterly, 21(4), 617-641. https://doi.org/10.2307/3586986

Collier, V. P. (1989). How long? A synthesis of research on academic achievement in a second language. TESOL quarterly, 23(3), 509- 531. https://doi.org/10.2307/3586923

Commodari, E. (2017). Novice readers: the role of focused, selective, distributed and alternating attention at the first year of the academic curriculum. i-Perception, 8(4), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1177/2041669517718557

Craik, F. I., Bialystok, E., & Freedman, M. (2010). Delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease: Bilingualism as a form of cognitive reserve. Neurology, 75(19), 1726-1729. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181fc2a1c

Crosson, A. C., Lesauc, N. K., & Martiniello, M. (2008). Factors that influence comprehension of connectives among language minority children from Spanish-speaking backgrounds. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29, 603-625.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716408080260

Cummins, J. (1978). Bilingualism and the development of metalinguistic awareness. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 9(2), 131-149. https://doi.org/10.1177/002202217892001

Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic Interdependence and the Educational Development of Bilingual Children. Education & Educational Research, spring 49(2), 222-251. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543049002222

Cummins, J. (1984). Bilingualism and special education. issues in assessment and pedagogy. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Cummins, J. (1987). Bilingualism Language Proficiency, and Metalinguistic Development. In P. Homel, M. Palij, & D. Aronson (Eds.), Childhood bilingualism: Aspects of Linguistic Cognitive and Social development (pp. 57-74). Hillsdale, New Jersy. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Cummins, J. (2017). Flerspråkiga elever: effektiv undervisning i en utmanande tid: Natur & Kultur Akademisk.

David, A., & Wei, L. (2008). Individual differences in the lexical development of French-English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11(5), 598- 618. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050802149200

Davis-Kean, P. E. (2005). The Influence of Parent Education and Family Income on Child Achievement: The Indirect Role of Parental Expectations and the Home Environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 294-304.

https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.19.2.294

de Bruin, A., & Sala, S. D. (2018). Effects of age on inhibitory control are affected by task-specific features. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71(5), 1219-1233. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2017.1311352

de Bruin, A., Treccani, B., & Della Sala, S. (2015). Cognitive advantage in bilingualism: an example of publication bias? Psychological Science, 26(1), 99-107. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614557866

De Cat, C. (2020). Predicting language proficiency in bilingual children. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 42(2), 279-325. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263119000597

De Cat, C., Gusnanto, A., & Serratrice, L. (2018). Identifying a threshold for the executive function advantage in bilingual children. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40(1), 119- 151. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263116000486

De Houwer, A. (2009a). Bilingual first language acquisition: Multilingual Matters https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691507

De Houwer, A. (2009b). An introduction to bilingual development: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691705

De Houwer, A. (2012). Milestones in bilingual children's development In Encyclopaedia of Language and Literacy Development (pp. 1-8). London, Canada: Western Ontario University.

De Houwer, A. (2018). Input, context and early child bilingualism: Implications for clinical practice. In A. Bar-On, D. Ravid, & E. Dattner (Eds.), Handbook of Communications Disorders: Theoretical, Empirical, and Applied Linguistic Perspectives. Boston, United States: De Gruyter, Inc.

De Houwer, A., Bornstein, M. H., & Putnick, D. L. (2014). A bilingual- monolingual comparison of young children's vocabulary size: Evidence from comprehension and production. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(6), 1189-1211. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716412000744

de Zeeuw, E. L., de Geus, E. J., & Boomsma, D. I. (2015). Meta-analysis of twin studies highlights the importance of genetic variation in primary school educational achievement. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 4(3), 69-76.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tine.2015.06.001

DeKeyser, R. M. (2013). Age effects in second language learning: Steppingstones toward better understanding. Language learning, 63, 52-67. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00737.x

DeKeyser, R. M., & Larson-Hall, J. (2005). What does the critical period really mean? Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches, 88, 108.

DeVellis, R. F. (2006). Classical test theory. Medical Care, S50-S59. Diamond, A. (2013). Executive Functions. Annual Review of Psychology (64), 135- 168. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mlr.0000245426.10853.30

Diamond, A. (2016). Why improving and assessing executive functions early in life is critical. In J. A. Griffin, P. McCardle, & L. S. Freund (Eds.), Executive Function in Preschool- Age Children: Integrating Measurement, Neurodevelopment, and Translational Research: The American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14797-002

Donnelly, S. (2016). Re-examining the bilingual advantage on interference-control and task-switching tasks: A meta-analysis. (10009829 Ph.D.). City University of New York, Ann Arbor.

Donnelly, S., Brooks, P. J., & Homer, B. D. (2019). Is there a bilingual advantage on interference-control tasks? A multiverse meta-analysis of global reaction time and interference cost. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 26(4), 1122-1147. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-019-01567-z

Droop, M., & Verhoeven, L. (2003). Language proficiency and reading ability in first- and second-language learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 38(1), 78-103. https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.38.1.4

Duggan, E. C., & Garcia-Barrera, M. A. (2015). Executive functioning and Intelligence. In S. Goldstein, J. A. Naglieri, & D. Princiotta (Eds.), Handbook of intelligence: Evolutionary theory, historical perspective, and current concepts (pp. 435-458). New York: NY: Springer.

Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., . . . Brooks-Gunn, J. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.6.1428

Dunn, L., Dunn, L., Whetton, C., & Burley, J. (1997). The British Picture Vocabulary Scale (2 ed.). London: nferNelson.

Ebert, K. D., & Kohnert, K. (2011). Sustained attention in children with primary language impairment: A meta-analysis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0231)

Egeberg, E. (2016). Minoritetsspråk og flerspråklighet: en håndbok i utredning og vurdering (2. utg. ed.). Oslo: Cappelen Damm akademisk.

Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current directions in psychological science, 11(1), 19-23. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00160

Engle, R. W., & Kane, M. J. (2004). Executive attention, working memory capacity, and a two-factor theory of cognitive control. Psychology of learning and motivation, 44, 145-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-7421(03)44005-X

Espenakk, U., Frost, J., Færevaag, M. K., Horn, E., Løge, I. K., Solheim, R. G., & Wagner, Å. K. H. (2003). TRAS- håndbok [TRAS handbook]. Bergen: Tras gruppen.

Espenakk, U., Frost, J., Færevaag, M. K., Horn, E., Løge, I. K., Solheim, R. G., & Wagner, Å. K. H. (2011). TRAS: observasjon av språk i daglig samspill [Early observation of language development in natural settings]. Stavanger: Nasjonalt senter for leseopplæring og leseforskning, Universitetet i Stavanger.

Essahli Vik, N. (2019). Den føyelige pedagogen - kartlegging som disiplinering av pedagogisk praksis. 18(1). Tidsskrift for Nordisk Barnehageforskning, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.7577/nbf.3013

Estes, K. G., Evans, J. L., & Else-Quest, N. M. (2007). Differences in the nonword repetition performance of children with and without specific language impairment: A meta-analysis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research.

Fan, J., McCandliss, B. D., Sommer, T., Raz, A., & Posner, M. I. (2002). Testing the efficiency and independence of attentional networks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(3), 340-347. https://doi.org/10.1162/089892902317361886

Farnia, F., & Geva, E. (2013). Growth and predictors of change in English language learners' reading comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading, 36(4), 389-421. https://doi.org/10.1111/jrir.12003

Fenson, L., Bates, E., Dale, P. S., Marchman, V. A., Reznick, J. S., & Thal, D. J. (2007). MacArthur-Bates communicative development inventories: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1037/t11538-000

Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics: Sage.

Fisher, Z., & Tipton, E. (2015). robumeta: An R-package for robust variance estimation in meta-analysis.

Fodor, J. A. (1983). The modularity of mind: MIT press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/4737.001.0001

Follmer, D. J. (2018). Executive function and reading comprehension: A meta-analytic review. Educational Psychologist, 53(1), 42-60. Fournier-Vicente, S., Larigauderie, P., & Gaonac'h, D. J. A. p. (2008). More dissociations and interactions within central executive functioning: A comprehensive latent-variable analysis. 129(1), 32-48.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2017.1309295

Frazier, L. (1987). Sentence processing: A tutorial review. In M. Coltheart (Ed.), Attention and performance 12: The psychology of reading (pp. 559-586). Hillsdale, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A., Corley, R. P., Young, S. E., DeFries, J. C., & Hewitt, J. K. (2006). Not all executive functions are related to intelligence. Psychological Science, 17(2), 172-179. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01681.x

Friesen, D. C., & Bialystok, E. (2012). Metalinguistic Ability in Bilingual Children: The Role of Executive Control. Rivista di psicolinguistica applicata, 12(3), 47-56.

Gabszewicz, J., Ginsburgh, V., & Weber, S. (2011). Bilingualism and Communicative Benefits. Annals of Economics and Statistics (101/102), 271-286. https://doi.org/10.2307/41615483

Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational Research. An introduction (6th ed.): Longman Publishers USA.

García, J. R., & Cain, K. (2014). Decoding and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis to Identify Which Reader and Assessment Characteristics Influence the Strength of the Relationship in English. Review of Educational Research, 84(1), 74-111. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654313499616

Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: a review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134(1), 31-60. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.134.1.31

Gathercole, V.C. M., & Thomas, E. M. (2009). Bilingual first-language development: Dominant language takeover, threatened minority language take-up. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12(2), 213-237. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909004015

Gatt, D., O'Toole, C., & Haman, E. (2015). Using Parental Reports to Assess Early Lexical Production in Children Exposed to More Than One language. In S. Armon-Lotem, J. de Jong, & N. Meir (Eds.), Assessing Multilingual Children. Disentangling Bilingualism from Language Impairment. Bristol, Buffalo, Toronto: Multilingual matters.

https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783093137-009

Genesee, F. (2010). Dual language development in preschool children. Young English language learners: Current research and emerging directions for practice and policy, 59-79.

Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W. M., & Christian, D. (2006). Educating English language learners: A synthesis of research evidence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499913

Geva, E. (2000). Issues in the assessment of reading disabilities in L2 children-beliefs and research evidence. Dyslexia (10769242), 6(1), 13-28. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0909(200001/03)6:1<13::AID-DYS155>3.0.CO;2-6

Geva, E. (2006). Second-Language Oral Proficiency and Second- Language Literacy. In Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language- Minority Children and Youth. (pp. 123-139). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Geva, E. (2007). Conjunction use in School Children's Oral Language and Reading. In R. Horowitz (Ed.), Talking Texts. How Speech and Writing Interact in School Learning

Geva, E., & Farnia, F. (2012). Developmental changes in the nature of language proficiency and reading fluency paint a more complex view of reading comprehension in ELL and EL1. Reading and Writing, 25(8), 1819-1845.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9333-8

Geva, E., & Ryan, E. B. (1985). Use of conjunctions in expository texts by skilled and less skilled readers. Journal of Reading Behavior, 17(4), 331-346. https://doi.org/10.1080/10862968509547549

Geva, E., & Wiener, J. (2015). Psychological assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse children and adolescents: A practitioner's guide: Springer Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1891/9780826123497

Gisela, H., Eva-Kristina, S., & Ulrika, N. (2003). Measuring language development in bilingual children: Swedish- Arabic children with and without language impairment. Linguistics, 41(2), 255- 288. https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2003.009

Gjervan, M., & Svolsbru, G. (2010). Behov for nyansering i kartleggingsdebatten. Barnehagefolk, 2, 87-89.

Grafman, J., & Litvan, I. (1999). Importance of deficits in executive functions. The Lancet, 354(9194), 1921-1923. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(99)90438-5

Grant, A., Gottardo, A., & Geva, E. (2011). Reading in English as a First or Second Language: The Case of Grade 3 Spanish, Portuguese, and English Speakers. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice (Wiley-Blackwell), 26(2), 67-83. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2011.00327.x

Green, D. W. (1998). Mental control of the bilingual lexico-semantic system. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1(2), 67-81. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728998000133

Grimm, A., & Schulz, P. (2014). Specific language impairment and early second language acquisition: the risk of over-and underdiagnosis. Child Indicators Research, 7(4), 821-841. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-013-9230-6

Grundy, J. G., & Timmer, K. (2016). Bilingualism and working memory capacity: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Second Language Research, 33(3), 325-340. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658316678286

Guajardo, N. R., & Cartwright, K. B. (2016). The contribution of theory of mind, counterfactual reasoning, and executive function to pre- readers' language comprehension and later reading awareness and comprehension in elementary school. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 144, 27-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.11.004

Haft, S. L., Caballero, J. N., Tanaka, H., Zekelman, L., Cutting, L. E., Uchikoshi, Y., & Hoeft, F. (2019). Direct and indirect contributions of executive function to word decoding and reading comprehension in kindergarten. Learning and Individual Differences, 76, 101783. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2019.101783

Hakuta, K., Butler, Y. G., & Witt, D. (2000). How Long Does It Take English Learners To Attain Proficiency? Policy Report 2000- 2001. California University. The Linguistic Minority Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA.

Halle, T., Hair, E., Wandner, L., McNamara, M., & Chien, N. (2012). Predictors and outcomes of early versus later English language proficiency among English language learners. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(1), 1-20.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.07.004

Hammer, C. S., Davison, M. D., Lawrence, F. R., & Miccio, A. W. (2009). The Effect of Maternal Language on Bilingual Children's Vocabulary and Emergent Literacy Development During Head Start and Kindergarten. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13(2), 99- 121. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888430902769541

Hammer, C. S., Hoff, E., Uchikoshi, Y., Gillanders, C., Castro, D. C., & Sandilos, L. E. (2014). The language and literacy development of young dual language learners: A critical review. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 715-733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.05.008

Hammer, C. S., Lawrence, F. R., & Miccio, A. W. (2008). Exposure to English before and after Entry into Head Start: Bilingual Children's Receptive Language Growth in Spanish and English. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11(1), 30-56. https://doi.org/10.2167/beb376.0

Han, W.-J. (2012). Bilingualism and Academic Achievement. Child Development, 83(1), 300-321. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01686.x

Harkio, N., & Pietilä, P. (2016). The role of vocabulary breadth and depth in reading comprehension: A quantitative study of Finnish EFL learners. Journal of Language teaching and research, 7(6), 1079-1088. https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0706.03

Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (2003). The Early Catastrophe. The 30 Million Word Gap by Age 3. American Educator, 27(1), 4-9.

Helland, T., Jones, L. Ø., & Helland, W. (2017). Detecting preschool language impairment and risk of developmental dyslexia. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 31(2), 295-311. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568543.2016.1274928

Heller, M. C., Lervåg, A., & Grøver, V. (2019). Oral Language Intervention in Norwegian Schools Serving Young Language‐ Minority Learners: A Randomized Trial. Reading Research Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.248

Helvig, A., & Løge, I. K. (2006). Presiseringer av spørsmålene i TRAS. Stavanger: University of Stavanger.

Hermansen, A. S. (2009). Unmaking the vertical Mosaic? Occupational Class Attainment among Second- Generation Immigrants in Norway. (Master of Philosophy Thesis. Sociology). University of Oslo, Department of Sociology. and Human geography, faculty of Social Sciences, University of Oslo.

Hermansen, A. S. (2013). Occupational Attainment Among Children of Immigrants in Norway: Bottlenecks into Employment--Equal Access to Advantaged Positions? European Sociological Review, 29(3), 517-534. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcr094

Hermansen, A. S. (2016). Moving Up or Falling Behind? Intergenerational Socioeconomic Transmission among Children of Immigrants in Norway. European Sociological Review, 32(5), 675-689. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcw024

Hilchey, M. D., & Klein, R. M. (2011). Are there bilingual advantages on nonlinguistic interference tasks? Implications for the plasticity of executive control processes. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18(4), 625-658.

https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-011-0116-7

Hilchey, M. D., Saint- Aubin, J., & Klein, R. M. (2015). Does bilingual exercise enhance cognitive fitness in non-linguistic executive processing tasks. In Cambridge handbook of bilingual processing. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107447257.026

Hipfner-Boucher, K., Milburn, T., Weitzman, E., Greenberg, J., Pelletier, J., & Girolametto, L. (2015). Narrative abilities in subgroups of English language learners and monolingual peers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19(6), 677-692. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006914534330

Hjetland, H. N., Lervåg, A., Lyster, S.-A. H., Hagtvet, B. E., Hulme, C., & Melby-Lervåg, M. (2018). Pathways to reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from 4 to 9 years of age. Journal of Educational Psychology. 111(5), 751-763. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000321

Hoff, E. (2006). How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental Review, 26(1), 55-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2005.11.002

Hoff, E. (2013). Interpreting the early language trajectories of children from low-SES and language minority homes: implications for closing achievement gaps. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027238

Hoff, E., Core, C., Place, S., Rumiche, R., Senor, M., & Parra, M. (2012). Dual language exposure and early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language., 39(1), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000910000759

Hoff, E., Giguere, D., Quinn, J., & Lauro, J. (2018). The development of English and Spanish among children in immigrant families in the United States. Pensamiento educativo: revista de investigacion educacional Latinoamericana, 55(2), 1. https://doi.org/10.7764/PEL.55.2.2018.1

Hoff, E., Rumiche, R., Burridge, A., Ribot, K. M., & Welsh, S. N. (2014). Expressive vocabulary development in children from bilingual and monolingual homes: A longitudinal study from two to four years. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 433- 444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.04.012

Hoover, W. A., & Gough, P. B. (1990). The simple view of reading. Reading and Writing, 2(2), 127-160. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00401799

Hsu, L. S.-J., Ip, K. I., Arredondo, M. M., Tardif, T., & Kovelman, I. (2019). Simultaneous acquisition of English and Chinese impacts children's reliance on vocabulary, morphological and phonological awareness for reading in English. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(2), 207- 223. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1246515

Huang, S., Fang Kan, M., & Fang Kan, P. (2019). Working with Culturally and Linguistic Diverse Populations. In M. W. Hudson & m. DeRuiter (Eds.), Professional Issues in Speech- Language pathology and Audiology (5th ed.).

Hutchinson, J. M., Whiteley, H. E., Smith, C. D., & Connors, L. (2003). The developmental progression of comprehension-related skills in children learning EAL. Journal of Research in Reading, 26(1), 19-32. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.261003

Huttenlocher, J., Vasilyeva, M., Cymerman, E., & Levine, S. (2002). Language input and child syntax. Cognitive Psychology, 45(3), 337-374. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0285(02)00500-5

Huttenlocher, J., Waterfall, H., Vasilyeva, M., Vevea, J., & Hedges, L. V. (2010). Sources of variability in children's language growth. Cognitive Psychology, 61(4), 343-365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2010.08.002

Høien, T., & Tønnesen, G. (2008). Introduksjonshefte til Ordkjedeprøven. Bryne: Logometrica AS.

Im-Bolter, N., & Cohen, N. J. (2007). Language impairment and psychiatric comorbidities. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 54(3), 525-542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2007.02.008

Ingre, M. (2013). Why small low-powered studies are worse than large high-powered studies and how to protect against "trivial" findings in research: Comment on Friston (2012). NeuroImage, 81, 496-498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.03.030

Jeon, E. H., & Yamashita, J. (2014). L2 reading comprehension and its correlates: A meta‐analysis. Language learning, 64(1), 160-212. Jurado, M. B., & Rosselli, M. (2007). The elusive nature of executive functions: a review of our current understanding. Neuropsychology review, 17(3), 213-233. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12034

Justis- og beredskapsdepartementet. (2015). Meld. St. 30 (2015- 2016) Fra mottak til arbeidsliv- en effektiv integreringspolitikk. Regjeringen.no

Karr, J. E., Areshenkoff, C. N., Hofer, S. M., Rast, P., Iverson, G. L., & Garcia- barrera, M. A. (2018). The unity and diversity of executive functions: A systematic review and re-analysis of latent variable studies. Psychological Bulletin, 144, 1147-1185. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000160

Kaushanskaya, M., & Prior, A. (2015). Variability in the effects of bilingualism on cognition: It is not just about cognition, it is also about bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18(1), 27-28. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728914000510

Keenan, J. M., Betjemann, R. S., & Olson, R. K. (2008). Reading comprehension tests vary in the skills they assess: Differential dependence on decoding and oral comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12(3), 281-300.

https://doi.org/10.1080/10888430802132279

Keijzer, M., & De Bot, K. (2019). Unlearning and relearning of languages from childhood to later. In A. De Houwer & L. Ortega (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Bilingualism (pp. 267-286): The Cambridge University press.

Kieffer, M. J. (2008). Catching up or falling behind? Initial English proficiency, concentrated poverty, and the reading growth of language minority learners in the United States. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 851-868. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.100.4.851

Kieffer, M. J. (2012a). Before and after third grade: Longitudinal evidence for the shifting role of socioeconomic status in reading growth. Reading and Writing, 25(7), 1725-1746. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9339-2

Kieffer, M. J. (2012b). Early oral language and later reading development in Spanish-speaking English language learners: Evidence from a nine-year longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33(3), 146-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2012.02.003

Kieffer, M. J. (2014). Morphological awareness and reading difficulties in adolescent Spanish-speaking language minority learners and their classmates. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(1), 44-53. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219413509968

Kieffer, M. J., Biancarosa, G., & Mancilla-Martinez, J. (2013). Roles of morphological awareness in the reading comprehension of Spanish-speaking language minority learners: Exploring partial mediation by vocabulary and reading fluency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34(4), 697-725. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716411000920

Kieffer, M. J., & Lesaux, N. K. (2008). The role of derivational morphology in the reading comprehension of Spanish-speaking English language learners. Reading and Writing, 21(8), 783-804. Kieffer, M. J., & Lesaux, N. K. (2012). Knowledge of words, knowledge about words: Dimensions of vocabulary in first and second language learners in sixth grade. Reading and Writing, 25(2), 347-373. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-007-9092-8

Kieffer, M. J., Petscher, Y., Proctor, C. P., & Silverman, R. D. (2016). Is the Whole Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts? Modeling the Contributions of Language Comprehension Skills to Reading Comprehension in the Upper Elementary Grades. Scientific Studies of Reading, 20(6), 436-454. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2016.1214591

Kieffer, M. J., & Vukovic, R. K. (2013). Growth in reading-related skills of language minority learners and their classmates: more evidence for early identification and intervention. Reading and Writing, 26(7), 1159-1194.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-012-9410-7

Kieffer, M. J., Vukovic, R. K., & Berry, D. (2013). Roles of attention shifting and inhibitory control in fourth‐grade reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 48(4), 333-348. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.54

Kirby, J. R., & Hogan, B. (2008). Family literacy environment and early literacy development. Exceptionality Education International, 18(3), 112-130. https://doi.org/10.5206/eei.v18i3.7629

Klem, M., & Hagtvet, B. E. (2018). Tidlig språkkartlegging, til barnets beste? Norsk tidsskrift for logopedi, 4, 12-24.

Klem, M., Melby‐Lervåg, M., Hagtvet, B., Lyster, S. A. H., Gustafsson, J. E., & Hulme, C. (2015). Sentence repetition is a measure of children's language skills rather than working memory limitations. Developmental Science, 18(1), 146-154. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12202

Kleven, T. A. (2008). Validity and validation in qualitative and quantitative research. Nordic Studies in Education, 28(03), 219- 233.

Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing: London, New York: Routledge.

Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling: New York, London: Guilford press.

Kohnert, K. J., & Bates, E. (2002). Balancing bilinguals II: lexical comprehension and cognitive processing in children learning Spanish and English. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 45(2). https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2002/027)

Kopke, B. (2019). First language attrition: from bilingual to monolingual proficiency? In A. De Houwer & L. Ortega (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Bilingualism (pp. 349- 366): Cambridge University Press.

Kovelman, I., Baker, S. A., & Petitto, L.-A. (2008). Age of first bilingual language exposure as a new window into bilingual reading development. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(2), 203-223 https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728908003386

Kroll, J. F. (2008). Juggling two languages in one mind. Psychological Science Agenda, American Psychological Association, 22(1). https://doi.org/10.1037/e406222008-004

Kuo, L.-j., & Anderson, R. C. (2006). Morphological awareness and learning to read: A cross-language perspective. Educational Psychologist, 41(3), 161-180. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4103_3

Language and Reading Research Consortium. (2017). Oral language and listening comprehension: same or different constructs? Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research (60), 1273- 1284. https://doi.org/10.1044/2017_JSLHR-L-16-0039

Lawson, G. M., Hook, C. J., & Farah, M. J. (2018). A meta‐analysis of the relationship between socioeconomic status and executive function performance among children. Developmental Science, 21(2), e12529. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12529

Lee Salvatierra, J., & Rosselli, M. (2011). The effect of bilingualism and age on inhibitory control. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15(1), 26-37. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006910371021

LeFevre, J.-A., Berrigan, L., Vendetti, C., Kamawar, D., Bisanz, J., Skwarchuk, S.-L., & Smith-Chant, B. L. (2013). The role of executive attention in the acquisition of mathematical skills for children in Grades 2 through 4. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114(2), 243-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2012.10.005

Lehtonen, M., Soveri, A., Laine, A., Järvenpää, J., de Bruin, A., & Antfolk, J. (2018a). Is bilingualism associated with enhanced executive functioning in adults? A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/vwcgu

Leider, C. M., Proctor, C. P., Silverman, R. D., & Harring, J. R. (2013). Examining the role of vocabulary depth, cross-linguistic transfer, and types of reading measures on the reading comprehension of Latino bilinguals in elementary school. Reading and Writing, 26(9), 1459-1485. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-013-9427-6

Lervåg, A., & Aukrust, V. G. (2010). Vocabulary knowledge is a critical determinant of the difference in reading comprehension growth between first and second language learners. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(5), 612-620. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02185.x

Lervåg, A., Hulme, C., & Melby-Lervåg, M. (2018). Unpicking the Developmental Relationship Between Oral Language Skills and Reading Comprehension: It's Simple, But Complex. Child Development, 89(5), 1821-1838.

https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12861

Lesaux, N. K., Rupp, A. A., & Siegel, L. S. (2007). Growth in reading skills of children from diverse linguistic backgrounds: Finding from a 5- year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 821-834. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.99.4.821

Levesque, K. C., Kieffer, M. J., & Deacon, S. H. (2017). Morphological awareness and reading comprehension: Examining mediating factors. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 160, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.02.015

Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., Loring, D. W., & Fischer, J. S. (2004). Neuropsychological assessment: Oxford University Press, USA. Li, M., & Kirby, J. R. (2014). The Effects of Vocabulary Breadth and Depth on English Reading. Applied Linguistics, 36(5), 611-634.

Liamputtong, P. (2007). Researching the vulnerable: A guide to sensitive research methods. London, Thousand oaks, New Delhi: Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849209861

Limbird, C. K., Maluch, J. T., Rjosk, C., Stanat, P., & Merkens, H. (2014). Differential growth patterns in emerging reading skills of Turkish-German bilingual and German monolingual primary school students. Reading and Writing, 27(5), 945-968. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-013-9477-9

Lipka, O., & Siegel, L. (2012). The development of reading comprehension skills in children learning English as a second language. Reading and Writing, 25(8), 1873-1898. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9309-8

Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford press.

Liu, Y., Sun, H., Lin, D., Li, H., Yeung, S. S. s., & Wong, T. T. Y. (2018). The unique role of executive function skills in predicting Hong Kong kindergarteners' reading comprehension. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(4), 628-644. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12207

Luk, G., & Bialystok, E. (2013). Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: Interaction between language proficiency and usage. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25(5), 605-621. https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2013.795574

Lyster, S.-A. H., Lervåg, A. O., & Hulme, C. (2016). Preschool morphological training produces long-term improvements in reading comprehension. Reading and writing, 29(6), 1269-1288. MacCallum, R. C., Zhang, S., Preacher, K. J., & Rucker, D. D. (2002). On the practice of dichotomization of quantitative variables. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 19 https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.7.1.19

MacGinitie, W. H., MacGinitie, R. K., Maria, K., & Dreyer, L. G. (2002). Gates- MacGinitie reading test (4th ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside publishing.

Mancilla‐Martinez, J., & Lesaux, N. K. (2011a). The gap between Spanish speakers' word reading and word knowledge: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 82(5), 1544-1560. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01633.x

Mancilla-Martinez, J., & Lesaux, N. K. (2011b). Early home language use and later vocabulary development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 535. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023655

Marchman, V. A., Martínez, L. Z., Hurtado, N., Grüter, T., & Fernald, A. (2017). Caregiver talk to young Spanish‐English bilinguals: comparing direct observation and parent‐report measures of dual‐language exposure. Developmental Science, 20(1), e12425. Martinsen, L. B. (2016). Diskurser om kartlegging: en diskursanalytisk studie av massemedienes debatt om kartlegging i barnehagen. NTNU. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12425

McNeish, D. (2018). Thanks coefficient alpha, we'll take it from here. Psychological Methods, 23(3), 412.

https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000144

Meisel, J. M. (2018). Early child second language acquisition: French gender in German children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 21(4), 656-673. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728916000237

Melby-Lervåg, M., & Lervåg, A. (2014). Reading comprehension and its underlying components in second-language learners: A meta- analysis of studies comparing first-and second-language learners. Psychological Bulletin, 140(2), 409. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033890

Melby-Lervåg, M., Lervåg, A., Lyster, S.-A. H., Klem, M., Hagtvet, B., & Hulme, C. (2012). Nonword-Repetition Ability Does Not Appear to Be a Causal Influence on Children's Vocabulary Development. Psychological Science, 23(10), 1092-1098. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612443833

Mercer, J. R. (1973). Labelling the mental retarded: Clinical and social system perspectives on mental retardation. Berkley: University of California Press. https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520311503

Mezzacappa, E. (2004). Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Attention: Developmental Properties and Sociodemographic Correlates in an Epidemiological Sample of Young, Urban Children. Child Development, 75(5), 1373-1386. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00746.x

Midtbøen, A. H. (2019). Etterkommere av innvandrere i Norge. Mobilitet, assimilering, diskriminering. https://doi.org/10.18261/issn.2535-2512-2019-05-04

Millsap, R. E., & Yun-Tein, J. (2004). Assessing Factorial Invariance in Ordered-Categorical Measures. Multivariate Behav Res, 39(3), 479-515 https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327906MBR3903_4

Mischel, W., Ayduk, O., Berman, M. G., Casey, B., Gotlib, I. H., Jonides, J., . . . Zayas, V. (2011). 'Willpower'over the life span: decomposing self-regulation. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 6(2), 252-256. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsq081

Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (2012). The Nature and Organization of Individual Differences in Executive Functions: Four General Conclusions. Current directions in psychological science, 21(1), 8-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721411429458

Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex "frontal lobe" tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49-100. https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1999.0734

Monsrud, M.-B., Rydland, V., Geva, E., Thurmann-Moe, A. C., & Lyster, S.-A. H. (2019). The advantages of jointly considering first and second language vocabulary skills among emergent bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1624685

Moser, T. (2010). Syn på læring i barnehageloven og rammeplanen (I Barnas barnehage. Målsetninger, føringer og rammer for barnehagen)[The View of Learning in The Kindergarten Act and in the Norwegian Framework Plan for the Content and Tasks]. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.

Muthén, L., & Muthén, B. (1998). Mplus (Version 8.4) [computer software]. Los Angeles, CA: Author: Statmodel.com.

Naeem, K., Filippi, R., Periche-Tomas, E., Papageorgiou, A., & Bright, P. (2018). The importance of socioeconomic status as a modulator of the bilingual advantage in cognitive ability. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1818. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01818

Nagy, W. E., & Anderson, R. C. (1984). How many words are there in printed school English? Reading Research Quarterly, 304-330. https://doi.org/10.2307/747823

Nagy, W. E., & Herman, P. A. (1987). Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: Implications for acquisition and instruction. The nature of vocabulary acquisition, 19, 35.

Nagy, W. E., & Scott, J. (2000). Vocabulary processes. In Kamil, M, Mosenthal, P., Pearson, P.D. & Barr, R (Eds) Handbook of reading research, 3, (pp. 269-284). Muhwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Nation, K. (2006). Assessing children's reading comprehension. In M. J. Snowling & J. Stackhouse (Eds.), Dyslexia, Speech and Language. A Practitioner's Handbook. (2. ed.).

Neale, M. D. (1997). Neale Analysis of Reading Ability- Revisted. Second revised British Edition. London: GL Assessment.

NESH-publikasjon. (2016). Guidelines for Research Ethics in the Social Science, Humanities, Law and Theology. (4. Ed): The Norwegian National Research Ethics Committees.

Nicoladis, E. (2018). Simultaneous child bilingualism. In D. Miller, F. Bayram, J. Rothman, & L. Serratrice (Eds.), Bilingual Cognition and Language. The state of the science across its subfields (pp. 81-101). Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins publishing company.

Nippold, M.A. (2016). Later language development: School-age children, adolescents, and young adults: (4th Ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED, Inc.

Nordahl, T., & Overland, T. (1998). Idealer og realiteter: Evaluering av spesialundervisningen i Oslo kommune (Vol. 20/98). Oslo: Norsk institutt for forskning om oppvekst, velferd og aldring. https://doi.org/10.7577/nova/rapporter/1998/20

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2. Ed.). New York: McGraw_Hill.

O'Connor, M., Geva, E., & Koh, P. W. (2019). Examining reading comprehension profiles of grade 5 monolinguals and English language learners through the lexical quality hypothesis lens. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 52(3), 232-246. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219418815646

Oller, D. K. (2005). The distributed Characteristic in Bilingual Learning. International Symposium on Bilingualism, 1744- 1749.

Oller, D. K., Jarmulowicz, L., Pearson, B. Z., & Cobo-Lewis, A. B. (2011). Rapid Spoken Language Shift in Early Second- language Learning. The Role of Peers and Effects on the First language In Durgunoglu & Goldberg (Eds.), Language and literacy development in bilingual settings. New York: The Guilford Press.

Oller, D. K., Pearson, B. Z., & Cobo-Lewis, A. B. (2007). Profile effects in early bilingual language and literacy. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28(02), 191-230. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716407070117

Olson, R. K., Keenan, J. M., Byrne, B., & Samuelsson, S. (2014). Why do children differ in their development of reading and related skills? Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(1), 38-54. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2013.800521

Ouellette, G. P. (2006). What's meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in word reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 554-566. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.98.3.554

Paap, K. R., & Greenberg, Z. I. (2013). There is no coherent evidence for a bilingual advantage in executive processing. Cognitive Psychology, 66(2), 232-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2012.12.002

Paap, K. R., & Sawi, O. (2014). Bilingual advantages in executive functioning: problems in convergent validity, discriminant validity, and the identification of the theoretical constructs. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 962-962. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00962

Paradis, J. (2010). The interface between bilingual development and specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31(2), 227-252.https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716409990373

Paradis, J., Emmerzael, K., & Duncan, T. S. (2010). Assessment of English language learners: Using parent report on first language development. Journal of Communication disorders, 43(6), 474- 497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2010.01.002

Paradis, J., & Govindarajan, K. (2018). Bilingualism and children with developmental language and communication disorders. Bilingual cognition and language: The state of the science across its subfields, 347-370. https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.54.16par

Paradis, J., & Kirova, A. (2014). English second-language learners in preschool: Profile effects in their English abilities and the role of home language environment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38(4), 342-349. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025414530630

Paradis, J., & Ruiting, J. (2017). Bilingual children's long-term outcomes in English as a second language: language environment factors shape individual differences in catching up with monolinguals. Developmental Science, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12433

Pauls, L. J., & Archibald, L. M. (2016). Executive functions in children with specific language impairment: A meta-analysis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 59(5), 1074-1086. https://doi.org/10.1044/2016_JSLHR-L-15-0174

Pearson, B. Z., Fernandez, S. C., & Oller, D. K. (1993). Lexical development in bilingual infants and toddlers: Comparison to monolingual norms. Language learning, 43(1), 93-120. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1993.tb00174.x

Pelham, S. D., & Abrams, L. (2014). Cognitive advantages and disadvantages in early and late bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40(2), 313. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035224

Petersen, S. E., & Posner, M. I. (2012). The attention system of the human brain: 20 years after. Annual review of neuroscience, 35, 73-89. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-062111-150525

Pettersvold, M., & Østrem, S. (2018). Profesjonell uro: Barnehagelæreres ansvar, integritet og motstand: Fagbokforlaget.

Pihl, J. (2010). Etnisk mangfold i skolen: det sakkyndige blikket: Universitetsforlaget.

Place, S., & Hoff, E. (2011). Properties of Dual Language Exposure That Influence 2-Year-Olds' Bilingual Proficiency. Child Development, 82(6), 1834-1849. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01660.x

Place, S., & Hoff, E. (2016). Effects and noneffects of input in bilingual environments on dual language skills in 2 1/2-years-olds. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(5), 1023-1041. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728915000322

Posner, M. I. (2012). Attentional networks and consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 64. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00064

Posner, M. I., & Petersen, S. (1990). The attention system of the human brain Annual Review of Neuroscience, 13, 25-42. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ne.13.030190.000325

Posner, M. I., Petersen, S. E., Fox, P. T., & Raichle, M. E. (1988). Localization of cognitive operations in the human brain. Science, 240(4859), 1627-1631. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3289116

Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and psychopathology, 12(3), 427-441. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400003096

Potocki, A., Sanchez, M., Ecalle, J., & Magnan, A. (2017). Linguistic and cognitive profiles of 8-to 15-year-old children with specific reading comprehension difficulties: The role of executive functions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(2), 128-142. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219415613080

Pozuelos, J. P., Paz-Alonso, P. M., Castillo, A., Fuentes, L. J., & Rueda, M. R. (2014). Development of attention networks and their interactions in childhood. Developmental Psychology, 50(10), 2405. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037469

Proctor, C. P., & Louick, R. (2018). Development of vocabulary knowledge and its relationship with reading comprehension among emergent bilingual children: An overview. In A. Bar-On, D. Ravid, & E. Dattner (Eds.), Handbook of Communications Disorders: Theoretical, Empirical, and Applied Linguistic Perspectives. Boston, United States: De Gruyter, Inc.

Proctor, C. P., Montecillo, C., Silverman, R. D., & Harring, J. R. (2012). The role of vocabulary depth in predicting reading comprehension among English monolingual and Spanish- English bilingual children in elementary school. Reading and Writing, 25(7), 1635-1664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9351-6

Puglisi, M. L., Hulme, C., Hamilton, L. G., & Snowling, M. J. (2017). The Home Literacy Environment Is a Correlate, but Perhaps Not a Cause, of Variations in Children's Language and Literacy Development. Scientific Studies of Reading, 21(6), 498-514. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2017.1346660

Raghubar, K. P., Barnes, M. A., & Hecht, S. A. (2010). Working memory and mathematics: A review of developmental, individual difference, and cognitive approaches. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(2), 110-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2009.10.005

Raschke, V. R. (2013). Processes underlying syntactic control: Evaluating linguistically diverse children. (Doctor of Philosophy). Loyola University Chicago, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database.

Raykov, T. (1997). Scale reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and violations of essential tau-equivalence with fixed congeneric components. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 32(4), 329-353. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3204_2

Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G. A. (2019). Thanks Coefficient Alpha, We Still Need You! Educational and psychological measurement, 79(1), 200-210. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164417725127

Reynolds, R. E. (2000). Attentional resource emancipation: Toward understanding the interaction of word identification and comprehension processes in reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 4(3), 169-195. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532799XSSR0403_1

Ringblom, N. (2010). An introduction to bilingual development. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13(6), 749-751. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670051003593386

Rogde, K., Hagen, Å. M., Melby-Lervåg, M., & Lervåg, A. (2019). The effect of linguistic comprehension instruction on generalized language and reading comprehension skills: A systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 15(4), e1059. https://doi.org/10.1002/cl2.1059

Rogde, K., Melby-Lervåg, M., & Lervåg, A. (2016). Improving the general language skills of second-language learners in kindergarten: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 9(sup1), 150-170. https://doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2016.1171935

Rolls, E. T. (1995). A theory of emotion and consciousness, and its application to understanding the neural basis of emotion. In Gazzaniger, M.S.(Ed) The cognitive Neurosciences: The MIT press.

Rowe, M. L. (2012). A longitudinal investigation of the role of quantity and quality of child‐directed speech in vocabulary development. Child Development, 83(5), 1762-1774. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01805.x

Rumbaut, R. G. (2014). English plus: Exploring the Socioeconomic benefits of bilingualism in South California. In R. M. Callahan & P. C. Gándara (Eds.), The Bilingual Advantages. Language, Literacy and the US Labor Market (pp. 182- 210). Bristol, Buffalo, Toronto: Multilingualism matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783092437-009

Rydland, V., Aukrust, V. G., & Fulland, H. (2012). How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms. Reading and Writing, 25(2), 465-482. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-010-9279-2

Rydland, V., Aukrust, V. G., & Fulland, H. (2013). Living in neighborhoods with high or low co-ethnic concentration: Turkish-Norwegian-speaking students' vocabulary skills and reading comprehension. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16(5), 657-674. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2012.709224

Rydland, V., Grøver, V., & Lawrence, J. (2014). The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood. Journal of Child Language, 41(02), 352-381. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000912000712

Sànchez-Cubillo, I., Periànèz, J. A., Adrover-Roig, D., Rodrìguez- Sànchez, J. M., Rìos_Lago, M., Tirpau, J., & Barcelò, F. (2009). Construct validity of the trail making test: Role of task- switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS, 15(3), 438-450. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617709090626

Sarter, M., Givens, B., & Bruno, J. P. (2001). The cognitive neuroscience of sustained attention: where top-down meets bottom-up. Brain Research Reviews, 35(2), 146-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0173(01)00044-3

Saunders, W. M., & O'Brien, G. (2006). Oral language. In F. Genesee, K. Lindholm-Leary, W. M. Saunders, & D. Christian (Eds.), Educating English language learners: A synthesis of research evidence (pp. 14-63).

Scheele, A. F., Leseman, P. P. M., & Mayo, A. Y. (2010). The home language environment of monolingual and bilingual children and their language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31(1), 117-140. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716409990191

Schelletter, C. (2019). An Introduction to Bilingualism. London: Red Globe Press.

Schwartz, M., & Katzir, T. (2012). Depth of lexical knowledge among bilingual children: the impact of schooling. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25(8), 1947-1971. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9308-9

Sebastián-Gallés, N., Echeverría, S., & Bosch, L. (2005). The influence of initial exposure on lexical representation: Comparing early and simultaneous bilinguals. Journal of Memory and Language, 52(2), 240-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2004.11.001

Séguin, J. R., Arseneault, L., & Tremblay, R. E. (2007). The contribution of "cool" and "hot" components of decision-making in adolescence: Implications for developmental psychopathology. Cognitive Development, 22(4), 530-543. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2007.08.006

Silverman, R. D., Proctor, C. P., Harring, J. R., Hartranft, A. M., Doyle, B., & Zelinke, S. B. (2015). Language skills and reading comprehension in English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Reading and Writing, 28(9), 1381-1405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-015-9575-y

Sirin, S. R. (2005). Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research. Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 417-453. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543075003417

Skybakmoen, J., Klungtveit, H. S., Berg, T. L., & Nordseth, P. (2017). Dette er de norske nettavisene du bør være på vakt mot i valgkampen. Retrieved from https://filternyheter.no/dette-er-de- ni-norske-nettstedene-du-bor-vaere-pa-vakt-mot/

Slama, R. B. (2014). Investigating Whether and When English Learners Are Reclassified Into Mainstream Classrooms in the United States: A Discrete-Time Survival Analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 51(2), 220-252. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831214528277

St Clair-Thompson, H. L., & Gathercole, S. E. (2006). Executive functions and achievements in school: Shifting, updating, inhibition, and working memory. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59(4), 745-759.

https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210500162854

Stahl, S. A., & Nagy, W. E. (2006). Teaching word meanings. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410615381

Stangeland, E. B. (2018). Språklig mestring, lek og sosial kompetanse hos de yngste barnehagebarna. En studie av variasjon og sammenhenger. [Toddlers' Language proficiency, Play and Social competence within the ECEC-institution. A study of variation and relationships] (ph.d.). University of Stavanger, Stavanger.

Steffensen, K., & Ziade, S. E. (2009). Skoleresultater 2008: en kartlegging av karakterer fra grunnskolen og videregående skoler i Norge (Vol. 2009/23).

Stephens, C. (2013). Executive function development: A comparison of monolingual and bilingual children in Ireland. (U620379 Ph.D.). Queen's University Belfast (United Kingdom), Ann Arbor.

Stins, J. F., Polderman, J., Boomsma, D. I., & de Geus, E. J. (2005). Response interference and working memory in 12-year-old children. Child Neuropsychology, 11(2), 191-201. https://doi.org/10.1080/092970490911351

Storch, S. A., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2002). Oral language and code- related precursors to reading: Evidence from a longitudinal structural study. Developmental Psychology, 38, 934-947. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.38.6.934

Strand, O., Wagner, Å. K. H., & Foldnes, N. (2017). 4 Flerspråklige elevers leseresultater. In Klar framgang! (pp. 75-95). https://doi.org/10.18261/9788215030258-2017-5

Straume, H. R. (2015). Leserinnlegg: Kartlegging av barn. Norsk tidsskrift for logopedi (3), 46-47.

Stuss, D. T., & Alexander, M. P. J. P. r. (2000). Executive functions and the frontal lobes: a conceptual view. Psychological Research 63(3-4), 289-298. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004269900007

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th). Boston: Pearson.

Tanner-Smith, E. E., Tipton, E., & Polanin, J. R. (2016). Handling Complex Meta-analytic Data Structures Using Robust Variance Estimates: a Tutorial in R. Journal of Developmental and Life- Course Criminology, 2(1), 85-112.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s40865-016-0026-5

Tanner‐Smith, E. E., & Tipton, E. (2014). Robust variance estimation with dependent effect sizes: Practical considerations including a software tutorial in Stata and SPSS. Research synthesis methods, 5(1), 13-30. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1091

Team, R. C. (2019). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved from https://www.R-project.org/.

Teepen, J. (2004). On the relationship between aptitude and intelligence in second language acquisition. Studies in Applied Linguistics and TESOL, 4(3).

The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. (2017). Regulations on the framework plan for the kindergarten's content and tasks. Utdanningsdirektoratet.

Thompson, K. D. (2017). English learners' time to reclassification: Analysis. Educational Policy, 31(3), 330-363.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0895904815598394

Thurmann-Moe, C., Bjerkan, K. M., & Monsrud, M.-B. (2012). Utvikling av ordforståelse for ulike kategorier ord hos flerspråklige elever på morsmål og norsk. NOA-Norsk som andrespråk, 28(1).

Tipton, E., & Pustejovsky, J. E. (2015). Small-sample adjustments for tests of moderators and model fit using robust variance estimation in meta-regression. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 40(6), 604-634.

https://doi.org/10.3102/1076998615606099

Treffers- Daller, J. (2019). The Measurement of Bilingual Abilities. In A. De Houwer & L. Ortega (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Bilingualism (pp. 289-306): Cambridge Press University.

Tse, L. (2000). The Effects of Ethnic Identity Formation on Bilingual Maintenance and Development: An Analysis of Asian American Narratives. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 3(3), 185-200. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050008667706

Tuller, L. (2015). Clinical use of parental questionnaires in multilingual contexts. In S. Armon-Lotem, J. de Jong, & N. Meir (Eds.), Assessing multilingual children: Disentangling bilingualism from language impairment (p. 301-330). Bristol, Buffalo, Toronto: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783093137-013

U.S. Department of Education (2012). The condition of education 2012 (NCES 2012-045). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2012/2012045.pdf

Umansky, I. M., & Reardon, S. F. (2014). Reclassification Patterns Among Latino English Learner Students in Bilingual, Dual Immersion, and English Immersion Classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 51(5), 879-912. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831214545110

Umbel, V. M., Pearson, B. Z., Fernández, M. C., & Oller, D. K. (1992). Measuring bilingual children's receptive vocabularies. Child Development, 63(4), 1012-1020. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131250

Unsworth, S. (2013). Assessing the role of current and cumulative exposure in simultaneous bilingual acquisition: The case of Dutch gender. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(1), 86-110. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000284

Unsworth, S. (2016). Quantity and quality of language input in bilingual language development. In Bilingualism across the lifespan: Factors moderating language proficiency. (pp. 103-121). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14939-007

Unsworth, S., Argyri, F., Cornips, L., Hulk, A., Sorace, A., & Tsimpli, I. (2014). The role of age of onset and input in early child bilingualism in Greek and Dutch. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(4), 765-805. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716412000574

Vagh, S. B., Pan, B. A., & Mancilla-Martinez, J. (2009). Measuring growth in bilingual and monolingual children's English productive vocabulary development: The utility of combining parent and teacher report. Child Development, 80(5), 1545-1563. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01350.x

Verhallen, M., & Schoonen, R. (1993). Lexical knowledge of monolingual and bilingual children. Applied linguistics, 14(4), 344-363. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/14.4.344

Verhoeven, L. (2000). Components in early second language reading and spelling. Scientific Studies of Reading (4), 313-330. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532799XSSR0404_4

Verhoeven, L., & van Leeuwe, J. (2012). The simple view of second language reading throughout the primary grades. Reading and Writing, 25(8), 1805-1818. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9346-3

Verhoeven, L., Voeten, M., & Vermeer, A. (2019). Beyond the simple view of early first and second language reading: The impact of lexical quality. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 50, 28-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2018.03.002

Vernice, M., & Pagliarini, E. (2018). Is morphological awareness a relevant predictor of reading fluency and comprehension? New evidence from Italian monolingual and Arabic-Italian bilingual children. Frontiers in Communication, 3, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2018.00011

Vugs, B., Cuperus, J., Hendriks, M., & Verhoeven, L. (2013). Visuospatial working memory in specific language impairment: A meta-analysis. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(9), 2586-2597. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.05.014

Vygotsky, L. S. (1964). Thought and language. Annals of dyslexia, 14(1), 97-98. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02928399

Wagner, Å. K. H. (2004). Hvordan leser minoritetsspråklige elever i Norge? En studie av minoritetsspråklige og majoritetsspråklige 10 åringers leseresultater og bakgrunnsfaktorer i den norske delen av PIRLS 2001. Stavanger: Høgskolen i Stavanger.

Wechsler, D. (2003). WISC- IV: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: NCS Pearson inc. Norwegian translation copyright (2009). Stockholm: Katarina Tryck AB.

Wiebe, S. A., Espy, K. A., & Charak, D. J. D. p. (2008). Using confirmatory factor analysis to understand executive control in preschool children: I. Latent structure. 44(2), 575. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.44.2.575

Williams, K. T. (2001). Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE). Technical manual: All levels. Circle Pines, MN: AGS Publishing.

Wolf, E. J., Harrington, K. M., Clark, S. L., & Miller, M. W. (2013). Sample Size Requirements for Structural Equation Models: An Evaluation of Power, Bias, and Solution Propriety. Educational and psychological measurement, 76(6), 913-934. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164413495237

Woodard, E., & Rodman, A. (2007). Socio-economic status as a mediating factor in the relationship between bilingualism and the cognitive development of pre-school children. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association 93rd Annual Convention.

Woodcock, R. W., Muñoz-Sandoval, A. F., Ruef, M. L., Alvarado, C. G., & Wendling, B. J. (2005). Introducing Woodcock-Muñoz language survey, revised edition: Administration and scoring training.

Woods, E. A. (2013). The Development of Translation Equivalents in Bilingual Preschool Children. (Doctoral). University of Houston.

Yoshida, H., Tran, D. N., Benitez, V., & Kuwabara, M. (2011). Inhibition and Adjective Learning in Bilingual and Monolingual Children. Frontiers in Psychology, 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00210

Zelasko, N., & Antunez, B. (2000). If Your Child Learns in Two Languages. A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language. Washington: National clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.

Zelazo, P. D., Blair, C., & Willoughby, M. T. (2016). Executive Function: Implications for Education. NCER 2017-2000. National Center for Education Research.

Zelazo, P. D., Müller, U., Frye, D., & Marcovitch, S. (2003). The development of executive function. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68(3), 93-119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0037-976X.2003.00266.x

Zelazo, P. D., Qu, L., & Müller, U. (2005). Hot and cool aspects of executive function: Relations in early development. In W. Schneider, R. Schumann-Hengsteler, & B. Sodian (Eds.), Young children's cognitive development: Interrelationships among executive functioning, working memory, verbal ability, and theory of mind (p. 71-93). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Cover for Bilingualism: Advantages and Disadvantages in Cognitive Processing, Language and Reading Comprehension
Published
February 15, 2021