Traditional and cyber victimization: Emotional problems and perceived teacher support


Keywords: cyber victimization


Background: The lives of children in school is rapidly changing and their off-line and on-line lives are becoming more and more interwoven, this is also making the field of bullying more complex. Although bullying is a field that has been studied for quite some time, new technology is creating new challenges. There is still a need to know more about the possible emotional problems traditional and cyber victimization has on the students experiencing it. Knowing how it affects them is however not enough as it is also important to know what the teacher could do to make the situation better for these students when the bullying has happened. On this background, the current thesis attempts to highlight the different emotional problems detected between students having experienced traditional and / or cyber victimization, and to explore these consequences in depth, in addition to shed some light on how the class teachers’ response is perceived when the bullying has happened.

Aims: The primary aim of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge and theory building regarding the emotional consequences of traditional and cyber victimization and the importance of the authoritative class teacher in the intervention of bullying cases. A sub aim was related to practical implications and covers helping teachers in their practical work better recognize different emotional symptoms in addition to making them aware of the importance of the authoritative class teacher and protective control when intervening in cases of bullying.

Methods: Paper 1 builds on data from questionnaires from the nationwide school environment study conducted by Center for behavioral research in Norway in 2008. The data were collected using self - reported questionnaires, 3046 students participated in the study. For analysis SPSS software was initially used. Further latent variables in Structural Equation Modeling (Mplus) was used for investigating the relation between victimization and emotional problems. Paper 2 and 3 builds on qualitative data from 10 semi structured individual interviews performed both in Norway and Ireland. All the respondents had experienced traditional victimization and many of them also cyber victimization. The sample consisted of 10 cases that were reported closed to either the Norwegian centre for learning environment and behavioral research in education (NSLA), University of Stavanger or the National anti-bullying research and resource centre, Dublin City University.

Results: The results in paper 1 showed a stronger association between cyber victimization and symptoms of anxiety than between traditional victimization and symptoms of anxiety. There were also a stronger association between traditional victimization and symptoms of depression than between cyber victimization and symptoms of depression.

 The results in paper 2 showed differences regarding descriptions of symptoms of post-traumatic stress for those respondents having experienced only traditional and those having experienced both traditional and cyber victimization. The respondents having experienced both traditional and cyber victimization where the only ones reporting trouble sleeping, experiences of fear outside school and behavioral avoidance also outside school.

The findings in paper 3 showed that none of the class teachers were perceived as authoritative by the respondents, i.e. high on both warmth and control, during the time the respondents were bullied.

Conclusion: Both the findings in paper 1 and 2 points in the direction of cyber victimization causing more symptoms of anxiety than traditional victimization. The reasons for these results are yet to be investigated in future studies, however as cyber victimization often includes the aspects of anonymity and publicity, these could be contributing to the victim reporting more anxiety when having experienced cyber victimization. To reduce the experienced anxiety it is suggested that the teacher in bullying intervention needs to demonstrate an authoritative teacher style, which is found in paper 3 to be absent. In addition to emphasize the importance of showing warmth and control, the theoretical concept of protective control is introduced.

Author Biography

Ida Risanger Sjursø

Associate Professor
Norwegian Centre for Learning Environment and Behavioral Research in Education
University of Stavanger


Aase, T. H. & Fossåskaret, E. (2014). Skapte virkeligheter: Om produksjon og tolkning av kvalitative data. Created realities: About production and interpretation of qualitative data. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Alipan, A., Skues, J. L., Theiler, S., & Wise, L. (2020). Defining Cyberbullying: A multifaceted definition based on the perspectives of emerging adults. International Journal of Bullying Prevention, 2(2), 79-92.

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, DSM - 5 (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Association.

Ang, R.P. (2006). Effects of parenting style on personal and social variables for Asian adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 503-511.

Arseneault, L., Milne, B. J., Taylor, A., Adams, F., Delgado, K., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2008). Being bullied as an environmentally mediated contributing factor to children's internalizing problems: A study of twins discordant for victimization. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(2), 145-150.

Arseneault, L. (2018). Annual research review: The persistent and pervasive impact of being bullied in childhood and adolescence: Implications for policy and practice. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59(4), 405-421.

Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67(6), 3296-3319.

Bath, H. (2008). The three pillars of trauma-informed care. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 17(3), 17-21.

Bauman, S. & Del Rio, A. (2006). Preservice teachers' responses to bullying scenarios: Comparing physical, verbal, and relational bullying. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 219-231.

Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monograph, 4(1, Pt.2), 1-103.

Baumrind, D. (1991). Parenting styles and adolescent development. In R.M. Lerner, A.C. Petersen, & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), The encyclopedia of adolescence (pp. 746-758). New York, NY: Garland.

Baumrind, D., Larzelere, R. E., & Owens, E. (2010). Effects of preschool parents' power assertive patterns and practice on adolescent development. Parenting: Science and Practice, 10(3), 157-201.

Baumrind, D. (2013). Authoritative parenting revisited. History and current status. In R.E. Larzelere, A.S. Morris, & A.W. Harrist (Eds.), Authoritative parenting: Synthesizing nurturance and discipline for optimal child development, (pp. 11-34). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Bhaskar, R. (1997). A Realist Theory of Science. London: Verso.

Bonanno, R. A. & Hymel, S. (2013). Cyber bullying and internalizing difficulties: Above and beyond the impact of traditional forms of bullying. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(5), 685-697.

Boulton, M. J. & Underwood, K. (1992). Bully/victim problems among middle school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(1), 73-87.

Bowes, L., Maughan, B., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Arseneault, L. (2010). Families promote emotional and behavioural resilience to bullying: Evidence of an environmental effect. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(7), 809-817.

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology. 3(2), 77-101.

Breivik, K,. Bru, E., Hancock, C., Idsøe, C. E., Idsøe, T., & Solberg, M. E. (2017). Å bli utsatt for mobbing. En kunnskapsoppsummering om konsekvenser og tiltak. To experience victimization. A knowledge summary of consequences and measures. Regionalt Kunnskapssenter for Barn og Unge (RKBU Vest) Uni Research Helse & Nasjonalt Senter for Læringsmiljø og Atferdsforskning (Læringsmiljøsenteret). Universitetet i Stavanger. Retrieved from: forskning/rapporter/a-bli-utsatt-for-mobbing--en- kunnskapsoppsummering-om-konsekvenser-og-tiltak/

Brighi, A., Melotti, G., Guarini, A., Genta, M. L., Ortega, R., Mora- Merchán, J., Smith, P. K, & Thompson, F. (2012). Self-esteem and loneliness in relation to cyberbullying in three European countries. In Q. Li, D. Cross & P.K. Smith (Eds.), Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives, (pp. 32-56). Chichester: Wiley- Blackwell.

Brinkman, S & Kvale, S. (2010). Interviews. Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Brown, C. F., Demaray, M. K. & Secord, S. M. (2014). Cyber victimization in middle school and relations to social emotional outcomes. Computers in human behavior, 2014, 35, 12-21.

Brown, C. F., Demaray, M. K., & Secord, S. M. (2014). Cyber victimization in middle school and relations to social emotional outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 12-21.

Bru, E., Boyesen, M., Munthe, E. & Roland, E. (1998). Perceived social support at school and emotional and musculoskeletal complaints among Norwegian 8th grade students. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 42(4), 339-356.

Bru, E. (2011). Emosjonelt sårbare og sosialt passive elever. Emotional vulnerable and socially passive students. In U.V. Midthassel, E. Bru, S.K. Ertesvåg & E. Roland (Eds.), Sosiale og emosjonelle vansker: Barnehagens og skolens møte med sårbare barn og unge. (pp.17-33). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Bryman, A. (2016). Social research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Buch-Hansen, H. & Nielsen, P. (2014). Kritisk realisme. Critical realism. Frederiksberg: Roskilde Universitetsforlag.

Buss, A. H. (1961). The psychology of aggression. New York, NY: Wiley.

Byrne, B. M. (2009). Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications and programming. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Campbell, M., Spears, B., Slee, P., Butler, D., & Kift, S. (2012). Victim's perceptions of traditional and cyberbullying, and the psychosocial correlates of their victimization. Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties, 17(3-4), 389-401.

Cañas, E., Esteves, E., Martinez-Monteagudo, C & Delgado, B. (2020). Emotional adjustment in victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Social Psychology of Education. 23, 917-942.

Carlisle, N. & Rofes, E. (2007). School bullying: Do adult survivors perceive long-term effects? Traumatology, 13(1), 16-26.

Chan, T. W., & Koo, A. (2011). Parenting style and youth outcomes in the UK. European Sociological Review, 27(3), 385-399.

Cole, D. A., Zelkowitz, R. L., Nick, E., Martin, N. C., Roeder, K. M., Sinclair-McBride, K., & Spinelli, T. (2016). Longitudinal and incremental relation of cybervictimization to negative self- cognitions and depressive symptoms in young adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(7), 1321-1332.

Cook, T. D. & Campbell, D. T. (1979). The design and conduct of true experiments and quasi-experiments in field settings. In R.T. Mowday & R.M. Steers (Eds.) Research in Organizations: Issues and Controversies. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear Publishing Company.

Copeland, W. E., Wolke, D., Angold, A. & Costello, E. J. (2013). Adult psychiatric outcomes of bullying and being bullied by peers in childhood and adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(4), 419-426.

Cornell, D., Shukla, K., & Timothy, K. (2015). Peer victimization and authoritative school climate: A multilevel approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(4), 1186 - 1201.

Cornell, D. & Huang, F. (2016). Authoritative school climate and high school student risk behavior: A cross-sectional multi-level analysis of student self-reports. Journal of youth and adolescence, 45(11), 2246-2259.

Craig, W. M. & Harel, U. (2004). Bullying, physical fighting and victimization. In: C. Cyrrie, C. Roberts, A. Morgan, R. Smith, W. Settertobulte, O. Samdal, & V. B. Rasmussen (Eds.), Young people's health in context: Health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study: International report from the 2001/2002 study (pp. 133-144). Copenhagen: World Health Organization.

Dalen, M. (2004). Intervju som forskningsmetode - en kvalitativ tilnærming. Interview as a research method - a qualitative approach. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Darling, N. & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3), 487-496.

Davidson, L. M. & Demaray, M. K. (2007). Social support as a moderator between victimization and internalizing-externalizing distress from bullying. School Psychology Review, 36(3), 383- 405.

Dehue, F., Bolman, C., & Völlink, T. (2008). Cyberbullying: Youngsters' experiences and parental perception. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(2), 217-223.

Demaray, M. K., Malecki, C. K., Davidson, L. M., Hodgson, K. K. & Rebus, P. J. (2005). The relationship between social support and student adjustment: A longitudinal analysis. Psychology in the Schools, 42(7), 691-706.

Den nasjonale forskningsetiske komiteen (NESH) (2016). Forskningsetiske retningslinjer for samfunnsvitenskap, humaniora, juss og teologi. Ethical guidelines for research in social sciences, humanities, law and theology. Retrieved from: som-pdf/60125_fek_retningslinjer_nesh_digital.pdf

Derogatis, L. R., Lipman, R. S., Rickels, K., Uhlenhuth, E. H., & Covi, L. (1974). The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): A self- report symptom inventory. Behavioral Science, 19(1), 1-15.

Dooley, J. J., Pyzalski, J., & Cross, D. (2009). Cyberbullying versus face to face bullying: A theoretical and conceptual review. Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 182-188.

Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, P. H., Roberts, D. F., & Fraleigh, M. J. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development, 58(5), 1244-1257.

Dyregrov, A. (1998). Psykologisk debrifing: Hvordan lede gruppeprosesser etter kritiske hendelser. Psychological debriefing: How to lead group processes under critical events. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Dyregrov, A. (2010). Barn og traumer. En håndbok for foreldre og hjelpere. Children and trauma. A handbook for parents and helpers. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Egger, H. L., Costello, J. E., & Angold, A. (2003). School refusal and psychiatric disorders: A community study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(7), 797-807.

Ertesvåg, S. K. (2011). Measuring authoritative teaching. Teaching Teacher Education, 27(1), 51-61.

Fandrem, H. Strohmeier, D., & Roland, E. (2009). Bullying and victimization among native and immigrant adolescents in Norway: The role of proactive and reactive aggressiveness. Journal of Early Adolescence. 29(6), 898-923.

Fekkes, M., Pijpers, F. I., Fredriks, A. M., Vogels, T., & Verloove- Vanhorick, S. P. (2006). Do bullied children get ill, or do ill children get bullied? A prospective cohort study on the relationship between bullying and health-related symptoms. Pediatrics, 117(5), 1568-1574.

Finkelhor, D., Turner, H. A., & Hamby, S. (2012). Let's prevent peer victimization, not just bullying. Child Abuse & Neglect. 36(4), 271-274.

Finne, J., Roland, E., & Svartdal, F. (2018). Relational rehabilitation. Nordic Studies in Education, 38(04), 352-367.

Fisher, H. L., Moffitt, T. E., Houts, R. M., Belsky, D. W., Arseneault, L., & Caspi, A. (2012). Bullying victimisation and risk of self- harm in early adolescence: Longitudinal cohort study. BMJ, 344(e2683).

Florsheim, P. (1997). Chinese adolescent immigrants: Factors related to psychological adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26, 143-163.

Galen, B. R. & Underwood, M. K. (1997). A developmental investigation of social aggression among children. Developmental Psychology, 33(4), 589- 600

Garg, R., Levin, E., Urajnik, D., & Kauppi, C. (2005). Parenting style and academic achievement in East Indian and Canadian adolescents. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36, 653- 661.

Gerlinger, J. & Wo, J. C. (2016). Preventing school bullying: Should schools prioritize an authoritative school discipline approach over security measures? Journal of School Violence, 15(2), 133- 157.

Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., & Spiel, C. (2009). Traditional bullying and cyberbullying: Identification of risk groups for adjustment problems. Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 205-213.

Gregory, A., Cornell, D., Fan, X., Sheras, P., Shih, T., & Huang, F. (2010). Authoritative school discipline: High school practices associated with lower bullying and victimization. Journal of Educational Psychology. 102(2), 483-496.

Grigg, D. W. (2010). Cyber-aggression: Definition and concept of cyberbullying. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 20(2), 143-156.

Grills, A. E. & Ollendick, T. H. (2002). Peer victimization, global self- worth, and anxiety in middle school children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(1), 59-68.

Hamre, B. K. & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher-child relationships and the trajectory of children's school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72(2), 625-638.

Harter, S. (1996). Teacher and classmate influences on scholastic motivation, self-esteem, and level of voice in adolescents. In J. Juvonen & K. R. Wentzel (Eds.), Cambridge studies in social and emotional development. Social motivation: Understanding children's school adjustment (pp. 11-42). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Havik, T., Bru, E., & Ertesvåg, S. (2015). School factors associated with school refusal - and truancy related reasons for school non-attendance. Social Psychology of Education, 18(2), 221- 240.

Hawker, D. S. & Boulton, M. J. (2000). Twenty years' research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: A meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 41(4), 441- 455.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2007). Offline consequences of online victimization: School violence and delinquency. Journal of School Violence, 6(3), 89-112.

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Cyberbullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. Deviant Behavior, 29(2), 129-156.

Holt, M. K., Vivolo-Kantor, A. M., Polanin, J. R., Holland, K. M., DeGue, S., Matjasko, J. L., ... & Reid, G. (2015). Bullying and suicidal ideation and behaviors: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 135(2), e496-e509.

Idsøe, T., Dyregrov, A. & Idsøe, E. (2012). Bullying and PTSD Symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 901- 911.

Idsøe, T., Dyregrov, A., Idsøe, E., & Nielsen, M. (2016). Bullying and PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents. In C.R. Martin, V.R. Preedy, & V. B. Patel. (Eds.), Comprehensive guide to post-traumatic stress disorder. New York, NY: Springer International Publishing.

Idsøe, E. & Idsøe, T. (2012). Respektheftet. Emosjonelle vansker: Hva kan voksne gjøre for elever med emosjonelle vansker forårsaket av negative livshendelser. Emotional problems: What can adults do for pupils with emotional problems caused by negative life experiences. Universitetet i Stavanger, Det humanistiske fakultet, Senter for Atferdsforskning.

Inchley, J., Currie, D., Young,T., Samdal, O., Torsheim, T., Augustson,L., Mathison,F., Aleman-Diaz, A., Molcho,M., Weber, M & Barnekow, V. (2014). Health Policy for children and adolescents, NO. 7. Growing up unequal: gender and socioeconomic differences in young people's health and well- being. Health Behaviour in School-aged children (HBSC) study: International report from the 2013/2014 survey. World Health Organization. Regional Officer for Europe. Retrieved from:

Juvonen, J. & Gross, E. F. (2008). Extending the school grounds? Bullying experiences in cyberspace. Journal of School Health, 78(9), 496-505.

Jörskog, K.G. (1993). Testing structural equation models. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 294-316). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Kim, H., & Chung, R. H. G. (2003). Relationship of recalled parenting style to self-perception in Korean American college students. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 164(4), 481-492.

Kim, Y. S., Leventhal, B. L., Koh, Y. J., Hubbard, A., & Boyce, W. T. (2006). School bullying and youth violence: causes or consequences of psychopathologic behavior? Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(9), 1035-1041.

Kleven, T. A. (2008). Validity and validation in qualitative and quantitative research. Nordic Studies in Education, 28(03), 219- 233.

Kochanska, G., Padavich, D. L., & Koenig, A. L. (1996). Children's narratives about hypothetical moral dilemmas and objective measures of their conscience: Mutual relations and socialization antecedents. Child Development, 67(4), 1420-1436.

Kochenderfer-Ladd, B. & Ladd, G. W. (2001). Variations in peer victimization: Relations to children's maladjustment. In J. Juvoven & S. Graham. (Eds.), Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized, (pp.25-48). New York, NY: The Guildford Press.

Kowalski, R. M., Giumetti, G. W., Schroeder, A. N., & Lattanner, M.R. (2014). Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 1073-1137.

Kvale, S. (1997). Research apprenticeship. Nordisk Pedagogik: Journal of Nordic Educational Research, 17, 186-194.

Kvale, S. & Brinkmann, S. (2010). Det kvalitative forskningsintervju. 2nd Edition. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.

Landoll, R. R., La Greca, A. M., Lai, B. S., Chan, S. F., & Herge, W.M. (2015). Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 42, 77-86.

Langos, C. (2012). Cyberbullying: The challenge to define. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(6), 285-289.

Lazarus, R. (2006). Stress og følelser - en ny syntese. Stress and feelings - a new synthesis. Copenhagen: Akademisk forlag.

Lincoln, Y. S. & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry (Vol. 75). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Lisak, D. (1994). The psychological impact of sexual abuse: Content analysis of interviews with male survivors. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7(4), 525-548.

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2011). Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full findings and policy implications from the EU Kids Online survey of 9-16 year olds and their parents in 25 countries. Retrieved from:

Lund. T. (2005). The qualitative-quantitative distinction: Some comments. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 49(2), 115-132.

Machmutow, K., Perren, S., Sticca, F., & Alsaker, F. D. (2012). Peer victimisation and depressive symptoms: Can specific coping strategies buffer the negative impact of cybervictimisation? Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17(3-4), 403-420.

Matthiesen, S. B. & Einarsen, S. (2004). Psychiatric distress and symptoms of PTSD among victims of bullying at work. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32, 335 - 356.

McKenney, K. S., Pepler, D., Craig, W.M., & Connolly, J. A. (2005). Psychosocial consequences of peer victimization in elementary and high school: An examination of post traumatic stress disorder Symptomatology. In K. A. Kendall-Tackett & S.M Giacomoni (Eds.), Child victimization. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.

Menesini, E. & Nocentini, A. (2009). Cyberbullying definition and some critical considerations. Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 230-232.

Menesini, E., Nocentini, A., Palladino, B. E., Frisén, A., Berne, S., Ortega-Ruiz, R., ... & Naruskov, K. (2012). Cyberbullying definition among adolescents: A comparison across six European countries. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(9), 455-463.

Menesini, E., Nocentini, A., Palladino, B. E., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Frisen, A., Berne, S.,… Blaya, C. (2013). Definitions of cyberbullying. In: P. K. Smith & G. Steffgen (Eds.), Cyberbullying through the new media. Findings from an international network, (pp. 23-36). East Sussex: Psychology Press.

Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from persons' responses and performances as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50(9), 741-749.

Mikkelsen, E. G. & Einarsen, S. (2002). Basic assumptions and symptoms of post-traumatic stress among victims of bullying at work. European Journal of Work and Organization Psychology, 11(1), 87-111.

Miles, M., Hubermann, M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis. A method sourcebook. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Morse, J. M. (1995). The significance of saturation. Qualitative Health Research, 5, 147-149.

Munthe, E. & Roland, E. (Eds.). (1989). Bullying: An international perspective. London: David Fulton.

Muthen, L. K. & Muthen, B. O. (2011). Mplus version 6.11. Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.

Mynard, H., Joseph, S., & Alexander, J. (2000). Peer-victimization and posttraumatic stress in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 29(5), 815-821.

Nishina, A., Juvonen, J., & Witkow, M. R. (2005). Sticks and stones may break my bones, but names will make me feel sick: The psychosocial, somatic, and scholastic consequences of peer harassment. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(1), 37-48.

Nocentini, A., Calmaestra, J., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Ortega, R., & Menesini, E. (2010). Cyberbullying, labels, behaviors and definitions in three European countries. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20(2), 129-142.

Nordahl, T., Sørlie, A. M., Tveit, A., & Manger, T. (2003). Alvorlige atferdsvansker. Effektiv forebygging og mestring i skolen. Veileder for skoleeiere og skoleledere. Serious behavioral difficulties. Effective prevention and coping in school. Oslo: Læringssenteret.

Norwegian Media Authority. (2018). Children and media 2018. Retrieved from: medier/barn-og-medier-undersokelsen/

Olenik-Shemesh, D., Heiman, T. & Eden, S. (2012). Cyberbullying victimization in adolescence: Relationships with loneliness and depressive mood. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17(3- 4), 361-374.

Olweus, D. (1973). Hakkyllinger och översittare. Forskning om skolmobbning. Bullies and wipping boys. Research on school bullying. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Olweus, D & Roland. E. (1983). Mobbing: Bakgrunn og tiltak. Bullying: Background and measures. Kirke og undervisningsdepartementet.

Olweus, D. (1993). Understanding children's worlds. Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Olweus, D. (1996). Bullying at school. Knowledge base and an effective intervention program. In C.F. Ferris & T. Grisso, (Eds.), Understanding aggressive behaviour in children. New York: The New York Academy of Sciences.

Olweus, D. (2010). Understanding and researching bullying: Some critical issues. In S. S. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 9-33). New York, NY: Routledge.

Olweus, D. (2012). Cyberbullying: An overrated phenomenon?

European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(5), 520-538.

Olweus, D. & Limber, S. P. (2018). Some problems with cyberbullying research. Current opinion in psychology, 19, 139-143.

Olweus, D. & Roland, E. (1983). Mobbing: Bakgrunn og tiltak. Bullying: Background and measures. Oslo: Kirke og undervisningsdepartementet.

O'Moore, M. (1989). Bullying in Britain and Ireland: an overview. In: E. Roland & E. Munthe (Eds.), Bullying: An international Perspective. London: David Fulton Publishers.

O'Moore, M. (2014). Understanding Cyberbullying: A guide for parents and teachers. Dublin: Veritas.

Pai, A., Suris, A., & North, C. (2017). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the DSM-5: Controversy, change, and conceptual considerations. Behavioral Sciences, 7(1), 7.

Patchin, J. & Hinduja, S. (2006). Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: A preliminary look at cyberbullying. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4, 148-169.

Patterson, G. R., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1982). A comparative evaluation of a parent-training program. Behavior Therapy, 13(5), 638-650.

Pedhazur, E. J. & Schmelkin, L. (1991). Measurement, design, and analysis: An integrated approach. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Pepler, D. & Craig, W. (1995). A peek behind the fence: Naturalistic observations of aggressive children with remote audiovisual recording. Developmental Psychology, 31(4), 548-553.

Pepler, D. (2006). Bullying interventions: A binocular perspective. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 15(1), 16-20.

Perry, B. D. (2002). Principals of working with traumatized children: Special considerations for parents, caregivers and teachers. Retrieved from:

Pianta, R. C., Steinberg, M. S., & Rollins, K. B. (1995). The first two years of school: Teacher-child relationships and deflections in children's classroom adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 7(2), 295-312.

Pyzalski, J. (2012). From cyberbullying to electronic aggression: Typology of the phenomenon. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17(3-4), 305-317.

Raundalen, M. & Schultz, J. (2006). Krisepedagogikk. Pedagogy in crises. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Reijntjes, A., Kamphuis, J. H., Prinzie, P., & Telch, M. J. (2010). Peer victimization and internalizing problems in children: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(4), 244-252.

Rigby, K. (1996). Bullying in Australian schools and what to do about it. Melbourne: ACER

Rivers, I. (2004). Recollections of bullying at school and their long- term implications for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Crisis, 25(4), 169-175.

Roeser, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. J. (1998). Academic and emotional functioning in early adolescence: Longitudinal relations, patterns, and prediction by experience in middle school. Development and Psychopathology, 10(2), 321-352.

Roland, E. (1998). School influences on bullying (Doctoral dissertation, Durham University). Retrieved from: I

Roland, E. (1999). School influences of bullying. Stavanger: Rebell Forlag.

Roland, E. (2002). Aggression, depression, and bullying others. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 28(3), 198-206.

Roland, E. (2007). Mobbingens psykologi: Hva kan skolen gjøre? The psychology of bullying. What can the school do? Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Roland, E. & Auestad, G. (2009). Seksuell orientering og mobbing. Sexual orientation and bullying. Senter for Atferdsforskning. Universitetet I Stavanger.

Roland, E. & Idsøe, T. (2001). Aggression and bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 27(6), 446-462.

Roland, E. & Galloway, D. (2002). Classroom influences on bullying. Educational Research, 44(3), 299-312.

Rosenhan, D. L. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1989). Abnormal psychology. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

Rueger, S. Y. & Jenkins, L. N. (2014). Effects of peer victimization on psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence. School Psychology Quarterly, 29(1), 77-88.

Ryan. R. M., Stiller, J. D., & Lynch. H. (1994). Presentations of relationships to teachers, parents and friends as predictors of academic motivation and self-esteem. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 14(2), 226-249.

Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within the group. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 22(1), 1-15.<1::AID-AB1>3.0.CO;2-T

Salmivalli, C. & Pöyhönen, V. (2012). Cyberbullying in Finland. In: Q. Li., D. Cross, & P. K. Smith. (Eds.), Cyberbullying in the global playground: Research from international perspectives, (pp. 57- 72). Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.

Schenk, A. M. & Fremouw, W. J. (2012). Prevalence, psychological impact, and coping of cyberbully victims among college students. Journal of School Violence, 11(1), 21-37.

Silberg, J. L., Copeland, W., Linker, J., Moore, A. A., Roberson-Nay, R., & York, T. P. (2016). Psychiatric outcomes of bullying victimization: a study of discordant monozygotic twins. Psychological Medicine, 46(9), 1875-1883.

Singham, T., Viding, E., Schoeler, T., Arseneault, L., Ronald, A., Cecil, C. M., ... & Pingault, J. B. (2017). Concurrent and longitudinal contribution of exposure to bullying in childhood to mental health: the role of vulnerability and resilience. JAMA Psychiatry, 74(11), 1112-1119.

Slonje, R. & Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 147-154.

Slonje, R., Smith, P. K., & Frisén, A. (2013). The nature of cyberbullying, and strategies for prevention. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 26-32.

Smetana, J.G. (1994). Parenting styles and beliefs about parental authority. In: Smetana, J.G. (Ed.): Beliefs About Parenting: Origins and Developmental Implications, (pp.21-36). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Smith. P. K., (2005). Definition, types and prevalence of school bullying and violence. In: E. Munthe, E. Solli, E. Ytre-Arne, & E. Roland. (Eds.). A report from the conference "taking fear out of school". University of Stavanger. Center for Behavioral Research.

Smith, P. K. (2012). Cyberbullying and cyber aggression. In S. R. Jimerson., M. Nickerson., J. Mayer. & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), The handbook of school violence and school safety. International research and practice, 2nd Edition, (pp. 111-121). New York, NY: Routledge.

Smith, P. K., Del Barrio, C., & Tokunaga, R. S. (2013). Definitions of bullying and cyberbullying: How useful are the terms. In S. Bauman, D. Cross, & J. Walker (Eds.), Principles of cyberbullying research: Definitions, measures, and methodology, (pp.26-40). New York, NY: Routledge.

Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., & Tippett, N. (2006). An investigation into cyberbullying, its forms, awareness and impact, and the relationship between age and gender in cyberbullying. Research Brief No. RBX03-06. London: DfES.

Smith, P., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(4), 376 - 385.

Smith, P. K., & Sharp, S. (1994). School bullying: Insights and perspectives. London: Routledge.

Smith, P. K., Steffgen, G., & Sittichai, R. (2013). The nature of cyberbullying, and an international network. In P. K. Smith & G. Steffgen (Eds.), Cyberbullying through the new media: Findings from an international network, (pp. 3-19). East Sussex: Psychology Press.

Solberg, M. E. & Olweus, D. (2003). Prevalence estimation of school bullying with the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 29(3), 239-268. SPSS. (2006). SPSS for Windows. Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.

Staksrud, E. & Ólafsson, K. (2019). Tilgang, bruk, risiko og muligheter. Norske barn på internett. Resultater fra EU kids online-undersøkelsen i Norge 2018. Access, use, risk and opportunities. Norwegian children on the internet. Results from the EU kids online in Norway 2018. Retrieved from: areas/nordic/research/research-groups/living-the-nordic- model/news/eu-kids-online-hovedrapport-for-norge-2019.pdf

Statistics Norway (1994). Standard classification of municipalities 1994, Statistics Norway, Oslo.

Steinberg, L., Mounts, N. S., Lamborn, S. D., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Authoritative parenting and adolescent adjustment across varied ecological niches. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 1, 19-36.

Steinberg, L. (2001). We know some things: Parent-adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11(1), 1-19.

Sommer, D. (1996). Bardomspsykologi. Udvikling i en forandret verden. Childhood psychology. Development in a changed world. København: Hans Reitzels forlag.

Sorkhabi, N., & Mandara, J. (2013). Are the effects of Baumrind's parenting styles culturally specific or culturally equivalent? In R. E. Larzelere, A. S. Morris, & A. W. Harrist (Eds.), Authoritative parenting: Synthesizing nurturance and discipline for optimal child development (p. 113-135). American Psychological Association.

Sugden, K., Arseneault, L., Harrington, H., Moffitt, T. E., Williams, B., & Caspi, A. (2010). Serotonin transporter gene moderates the development of emotional problems among children following bullying victimization. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(8), 830-840.

Sullivan, K. (2011). The anti-bullying handbook. London: Sage.

Takizawa, R., Maughan, B., & Arseneault, L. (2014). Adult health outcomes of childhood bullying victimization: evidence from a five-decade longitudinal British birth cohort. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(7), 777-784.

Tehrani, N. (2004). Bullying: A source of chronic post traumatic stress? British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 32(3), 357-366.

Terr. L. (1991). Childhood traumas: An outline and overview. Focus, 1(3), 332-334.

Ttofi, M. M., Farrington, D. P., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2011). Do the victims of school bullies tend to become depressed later in life? A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 3(2), 63- 73.

Tokunaga, R. S. (2010). Following you home from school: A critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(3), 277-287.

Tsitsika, A., Janikian, M., Wójcik, S., Makaruk, K., Tzavela, E., Tzavara, C., ... & Richardson, C. (2015). Cyberbullying victimization prevalence and associations with internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents in six European countries. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 1-7.

Tveitereid, K., Fandrem, H., & Sævik, S. (2018). Flyktningkompetent skole. Refugee competent schools. Oslo: Cappelen Damm.

Ungar, M. (2011). The social ecology of resilience: Addressing contextual and cultural ambiguity of a nascent construct. American journal of orthopsychiatry, 81(1), 1.

Vandebosch, H., & Van Cleemput, K. (2008). Defining cyberbullying: A qualitative research into the perceptions of youngsters. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(4), 499-503.

Van der Kolk, B. A. (2005). Developmental trauma disorder: Towards a rationale diagnosis for children with complex trauma histories. Psychiatric Annals, 33(5), 401-408.

Van Geel, M., Vedder, P. & Tanilon, J. (2014). Relationship between peer victimization, cyberbullying, and suicide in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(5), 435-442.

Víllora, B., Larrañaga, E., Yubero, S., Alfaro, A., & Navarro, R. (2020). Relations among poly-bullying victimization, subjective well-being and resilience in a sample of late adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(2), 590.

Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Arseneault, L. (2009). The discordant MZ- twin method: One step closer to the holy grail of causality. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33(4), 376-382.

Walker, J. M. (2009). Authoritative classroom management: How control and nurturance work together. Theory into Practice, 48(2), 122-129.

Wendelborg, C. (2019). Mobbing og arbeidsro i skolen. Analyse av Elevundersøkelsen 2017/18. Bullying and work in peace at school. An analysis of the national student survey 2017/2018. Trondheim: NTNU.

Wentzel, K. R. (2002). Are effective teachers like good parents? Teaching styles and student adjustment in early adolescence. Child Development, 73(1), 287-301.

Wentzel, K.R. & Wigfield, A. (1998). Academic and social motivational influences on student's academic performance. Educational Psychology Review, 10(2), 155-175.

Williams, K. R., & Guerra, N. G. (2007). Prevalence and predictors of internet bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S14-S21.

Wolcott, H. F. (1990). On seeking-and rejecting-validity in qualitative research. In E. W. Eisner & A. Peshkin (Eds.), Qualitative inquiry in education: The continuing debate, (pp. 121-173). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Ybarra, M. L., Boyd, D., Korchmaros, J. D., & Oppenheim, J. K. (2012). Defining and measuring cyberbullying within the larger context of bullying victimization. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(1), 53-58.

Ybarra, M. L. & Mitchell, K. J. (2004). Online aggressor/targets, aggressors, and targets: A comparison of associated youth characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(7), 1308-1316.

Cover for Traditional and cyber victimization: Emotional problems and perceived teacher support
January 15, 2021