The Process Is Not Enough: Children and Teachers Creating Multimodal Digital Stories in Kindergarten


Marianne Undheim


multimedia, digital stories, kindergarten


This PhD study is a contribution to the contemporary debate on the educational uses of digital technology with young children in early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions. For young children growing up in the 21st century, digital technology is intertwined in their everyday lives. Nevertheless, children’s use of digital technology in ECEC is still limited, especially with regards to creative use of technology. Several researchers call for more empirical studies of young children’s creation with digital technology.

In this study, digital technology is emphasised as a tool to create, by which the children and the teachers are the creators of their own products to be shared with others. The purpose is to contribute with research-based knowledge of children’s and teachers’ collaborative, technology- mediated story creation processes. The overall research question is as follows: What emerges when kindergarten teachers involve groups of children (age 4-5 years) in technology-mediated story creation processes? The study has a qualitative multiple-case study approach with two cases, focusing on observable contemporary events. In both cases, six children and one kindergarten teacher have created a multimodal digital story together: an e-book and an animated movie. The empirical material consists of video-recorded field-observations of the process, interviews with the participants and the final products.

The research question is operationalised into three sub-questions that address the overall question from three perspectives: the participants, the creation processes, and the final products. In Article I, the technology- mediated creation process is explored, which can be described as a complex interplay of traditional non-digital activities and new digital activities. For the children, to record sound and to share were found to be the most important. In Article II, the teachers’ pedagogical strategies during the creation process with the children is emphasised. The three most frequently used pedagogical strategies were inviting to dialogue, explaining the practical, and instructing for results. In Article III, the animated movie is explored in-depth through a focus on how different modalities and literacy devices contribute to the development of the story. The importance of including the process, the product, the literacy devices, and all of the modalities in the analysis is highlighted, as well as the importance of being open for the magic during young children’s creation processes.

Through the analysis of the three articles, four new themes have arisen: emerging possibilities due to digital technology; creators in a creative process; an interplay of multiple knowledge areas; and the process is not enough. In the discussion I argue that a technology-mediated story creation process with a group of kindergarten children and a teacher can be interpreted as a collaborative creative process. A synergy of ideas arises through the collaborative co-construction process. Each single part of the creative process may not be viewed as being inherently creative; however, the fusion of these parts into a final multimodal digital story makes it an example of the creative use of digital technology. The children and teachers collaborate and create a product that is new, original and meaningful for them. The process is vital; however, the process itself is not enough—the product also matters—especially for the children.

Teachers’ capacity and knowledge of how to integrate technology and pedagogy with other relevant knowledge areas such as creativity and creative processes are crucial when using digital technology with children in ECEC. The final products may seem complicated to create; however, it is easier than it seems. The study contributes with research- based knowledge of creative use of digital technology with groups of young children, important for the ECEC field and kindergarten teacher education.

Author Biography

Marianne Undheim

Associate Professor
Department of Early Childhood Education, University of Stavnger


Alderson, P. (2005). Designing ethical research with children. In A. Farrell (Ed.), Ethical research with children (pp. 27-36). Open University Press.

Allmark, P., Boote, J., Chambers, E., Clarke, A., McDonnell, A., Thompson, A. R., & Tod, A. (2009). Ethical issues in the use of in-depth interviews: Literature review and discussion. Research Ethics Review, 5(2), 48-54.

Alver, B. G., & Øyen, Ø. (2007). Challenges of research ethics: An introduction. In B. G. Alver, T. I. Fjell, & Ø. Øyen (Eds.), Research ethics in studies of culture and social life (pp. 11-55). Akademia Scientiarum Fennica.

Alvesson, M., & Sköldberg, K. (2018). Reflexive methodology: New vistas for qualitative research (3rd ed.). Sage.

Alvestad, M., & Jernes, M. (2014). Preschool teachers on implementation of digital technology in Norwegian kindergartens. Forum on Public Policy Online, 2014(1), 1-10. content/uploads/2015/02/Alvestad-and-Jernes.pdf

Alvestad, M., Jernes, M., Knaben, Å. D., & Berner, K. (2017). Barns fortellinger om lek i barnehagen i en tid preget av moderne medier [Children's stories about play in kindergarten in a time characterised by modern media]. Norsk pedagogisk tidsskrift, 101(01), 31-44.

Apple. (2017). Garage Band (Version 2.3) [App]. App Store. Apple. (2018). iMovie (Version 2.2.5) [App]. App Store.

Bae, B. (2009). Children's right to participate - Challenges in everyday interactions. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 17(3), 391-406.

Bae, B. (2012). Children and teachers as partners in communication: Focus on spacious and narrow interactional patterns. International Journal of Early Childhood, 44(1), 53-69.

Barne- og familiedepartementet. (1995). Rammeplan for barnehagen [Framework plan for kindergarten]. Ministry of Children and Families.

Bartlett, S., & Burton, D. (2016). Introduction to education studies (4th ed.). Sage.

Barton, D. (2007). Literacy: An introduction to the ecology of written language (2nd ed.). Blackwell publishing.

Berge, A. (2012). Barnehagens læringskulturer - underveis mot vekslende læringshorisonter [Kindergarten's learning cultures: Towards changing learning horizons]. In T. Vist & M. Alvestad (Eds.), Læringskulturer i barnehagen: Flerfaglige forskningsperspektiver (pp. 44-66). Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Biesta, G. (2014). Pragmatising the curriculum: Bringing knowledge back into the curriculum conversation, but via pragmatism. Curriculum Journal, 25(1), 29-49.

Biesta, G., & Burbules, N. C. (2003). Pragmatism and educational research. Rowman & Littlefield publishers.

Björklund, C. (2010). Att fånga komplexiteten i små barns lärande: En metodologisk reflektion [Capturing the complexity of young children's learning: A methodological reflection]. Tidsskrift for Nordisk barnehageforskning, 3(1).

Blackwell, C. K., Lauricella, A. R., & Wartella, E. (2014). Factors influencing digital technology use in early childhood education. Computers & Education, 77, 82-90.

Bratitsis, T., Kotopoulos, T., & Mandila, K. (2012). Kindergarten children's motivation and collaboration being triggered via computers while creating digital stories: A case study. International Journal of Knowledge and Learning, 8(3/4), 239-258.

Brodie, K. (2014). Sustained shared thinking in the early years: Linking theory to practice. Routledge.

Bryman, A. (1984). The debate about quantitative and qualitative research: A question of method or epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35(1), 75-92.

Burn, A. (2016). Making machinima: Animation, games, and multimodal participation in the media arts. Learning, Media and Technology, 41(2), 310-329.

Burn, A., & Parker, D. (2003). Tiger's big plan: Multimodality and the moving image. In C. Jewitt & G. Kress (Eds.), Multimodal literacy (pp. 56-72). Peter Lang Publishing.

Burnett, C. (2010). Technology and literacy in early childhood educational settings: A review of research. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 10(3), 247-270.

Burnett, C., & Daniels, K. (2016). Technology and literacy in the early years: Framing young children's meaning-making with new technologies. In S. Garvis & N. Lemon (Eds.), Understanding digital technologies and young children: An international perspective (pp. 18-27). Routledge.

Bølgan, N. B. (2018). Digital praksis i barnehagen: Nysgjerrig, eksperimentell og skapende. Fagbokforlaget.

Børhaug, K., Brennås, H. B., Fimreite, H., Havnes, A., Hornslien, Ø., Moen, K. H., Moser, T., Myrstad, A., Steinnes, G. S., & Bøe, M. (2018). Barnehagelærerrollen i et profesjonsperspektiv - et kunnskapsgrunnlag [The kindergarten teaching profession: A knowledge base]. Kunnskapsdepartementet [Ministry of Education and Research]. kunnskapsgrunnlag.pdf

Cartwright, N., & Montuschi, E. (2014). Introduction. In N. Cartwright & E. Montuschi (Eds.), Philosophy of social science: A new introduction (pp. 1-6). Oxford University Press.

Cateater LLC. (2017). Stop Motion Studio (Version 8.4.1) [App]. App Store.

Chaudron, S., Di Gioia, R., & Gemo, M. (2018). Young children (0-8) and digital technology: A qualitative study across Europe [EUR 29070]. European Union.

Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M. (2000). Narrative inquiry: Experience and story in qualitative research. Jossey-Bass.

Cowan, K. (2014). Multimodal transcription of video: Examining interaction in early years classrooms. Classroom Discourse, 5(1), 6-21.

Craft, A. (2011). Creativity and education futures: Learning in a digital age. Trentham Books.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Sage.

Dahle, M. S., Hodøl, H.-O., Kro, I. T., & Økland, Ø. (2020). Skjermet barndom? Rapport basert på undersøkelse blant foreldre og lærere om barns skjermbruk [Report based on a survey by parents and teachers about children's screen usage]. Barnevakten. content/uploads/2020/02/Skjermet-barndom-RAPPORT.pdf

Danby, S. (2017). Technologies, child-centred practice and listening to children. In L. Arnott (Ed.), Digital technologies and learning in the early years (pp. 127-138). Sage.

Danby, S., & Farrell, A. (2004). Accounting for young children's competence in educational research: New perspectives on research ethics. The Australian Educational Researcher, 31(3), 35-49.

Danby, S., & Farrell, A. (2005). Opening the research conversation. In A. Farrell (Ed.), Ethical research with children (pp. 49-67). Open University Press.

Dardanou, M., & Kofoed, T. (2019). It is not only about the tools! Professional digital competence. In C. Gray & I. Palaiologou (Eds.), Early learning in the digital age (pp. 61-76). Sage.

Datatilsynet. (2018, June 25). Dataminimering [Data minimisation]. The Norwegian Data Protection Authority. Retrieved 30 March 2020 from plikter/personvernprinsippene/grunnleggende- personvernprinsipper/dataminimering

Dewey, J. (1902). The child and the curriculum. The University of Chicago Press.

Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. The Macmillan Company.

Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education. Collier-Macmillan. (Original work published 1938)

Dewey, J. (2009). Hvordan vi tænker - en reformulering af forholdet mellem refleksiv tænkning og uddannelsesprocessen [How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process]. Klim.

Dysthe, O. (2001). Sosiokulturelle teoriperspektiv på kunnskap og læring [Sociocultural theory perspectives on knowledge and learning]. In O. Dysthe (Ed.), Dialog, samspel og læring (pp. 33-72). Abstrakt forlag.

Einarsdóttir, J. (2007). Research with children: Methodological and ethical challenges. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 15(2), 197-211.

Engel, A., Barnett, W. S., Anders, Y., & Taguma, M. (2015). Early childhood education and care policy review: Norway. OECD. Care-Policy-Review-Norway.pdf

Ennew, J., Abebe, T., Bangyai, R., Karapituck, P., Kjørholt, A. T., & Noonsup, T. (2009). The right to be properly researched: How to do rights-based, scientific research with children. A set of ten manuals for field researchers. Black on White Publications; Knowing Children; Norwegian Centre for Child Research.

Erstad, O., & Voogt, J. (2018). The twenty-first century curriculum: Issues and challenges. In J. Voogt, G. Knezek, R. Christensen, & K.-W. Lai (Eds.), Second handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education (pp. 19-36). Springer International Publishing.

Fagerholt, R. A., Myhr, A., Stene, M., Haugset, A. S., Sivertsen, H., Carlsson, E., & Nilsen, B. T. (2019). Spørsmål til Barnehage- Norge 2018: Analyse og resultater fra Utdanningsdirektoratets spørreundersøkelse til barnehagesektoren [Analysis and results from the Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training's survey to the kindergarten sector]. Trøndelag R & D Institute. forskning/rapporter/2019/sporsmal-til-barnehage-norge- 2018.pdf

Fjørtoft, S. O., Thun, S., & Buvik, M. P. (2019). Monitor 2019: En deskriptiv kartlegging av digital tilstand i norske skoler og barnehager [A descriptive comprehensive survey of the digital status of Norwegian schools and kindergartens]. Sintef. bcc8bc61/monitor-2019-sluttrapport_sintef.pdf

Fleer, M. (2014). The demands and motives afforded through digital play in early childhood activity settings. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 3(3), 202-209.

Fleer, M. (2017a). Digital pedagogy: How teachers support digital play in the early years. In L. Arnott (Ed.), Digital technologies and learning in the early years (pp. 114-126). Sage.

Fleer, M. (2017b). Digital role-play: The changing conditions of children's play in preschool settings. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 24(1), 3-17.

Fleer, M. (2018). Digital animation: New conditions for children's development in play-based setting. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(5), 943-958.

Flewitt, R. (2006). Using video to investigate preschool classroom interaction: Education research assumptions and methodological practices. Visual Communication, 5(1), 25-50.

Flewitt, R., Messer, D., & Kucirkova, N. (2015). New directions for early literacy in a digital age: The iPad. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 15(3), 289-310.

Flyvbjerg, B. (2007). Five misunderstandings about case-study research. In C. Seale, G. Gobo, J. F. Gubrium, & D. Silverman (Eds.), Qualitative research practice (2nd ed., pp. 390-404). Sage.

Gadamer, H.-G. (2013). Truth and method. Bloomsbury.

Gander, H.-H. (2015). Gadamer: The universality of hermeneutics. In J. Malpas & H.-H. Gander (Eds.), The Routledge companion to hermeneutics (pp. 137-148). Routledge.

Garvis, S. (2016). Digital technology and young children's narratives. In S. Garvis & N. Lemon (Eds.), Understanding digital technologies and young children: An international perspective (pp. 28-37). Routledge.

Garvis, S. (2018). Digital narratives and young children. In S. Danby, M. Fleer, C. Davidson, & M. Hatzigianni (Eds.), Digital childhoods: Technologies and children's everyday lives (pp. 183-195). Springer.

Gibbons, A. N. (2010). Reflections concerning technology: A case for the philosophy of technology in early childhood teacher education and professional development programs. In S. Izumi- Taylor & S. Blake (Eds.), Technology for early childhood education and socialization: Developmental applications and methodologies (pp. 1-19). IGI Global.

Gibson, J. J. (2015). The ecological approach to visual perception. Psychology Press.

Gilutz, S. (2020). Child-centered design: Integrating children's rights and ethics into the heart of the design process. In C. Donohue (Ed.), Exploring key issues in early childhood and technology: Evolving perspectives and innovative approaches (pp. 49-54). Routledge.

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). Discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Aldine.

Gómez, A. V. (2015). Rationality and method. In J. Malpas & H.-H. Gander (Eds.), The Routledge companion to hermeneutics (pp. 251-266). Routledge.

Guillemin, M., & Gillam, L. (2004). Ethics, reflexivity, and "ethically important moments" in research. Qualitative Inquiry, 10(2), 261-280.

Haggerty, M. (2011). Accessing pedagogical territories that can't be put into words: Using video to build understandings of children's multimodal meaning-making. Contemporary Issues In Early Childhood, 12(4), 385-398.

Harwood, D. (2017). The digital world of young children. In D. Harwood (Ed.), Crayons and iPads: Learning and teaching of young children in the digital world (pp. 1-5). Sage.

Heikkilä, M., & Sahlström, F. (2003). Om användning av videoinspelning i fältarbete [The use of video-recording in field work]. Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, 8(1-2), 24-41.

Hesterman, S. (2011a). A contested space: The dialogic intersection of ICT, multiliteracies, and early childhood. Contemporary Issues In Early Childhood, 12(4), 349-361.

Hesterman, S. (2011b). Multiliterate Star Warians: The force of popular culture and ICT in early learning. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 36(4), 86-95.

Heydon, R., McKee, L., & Daly, B. (2017). iPads and paintbrushes: Integrating digital media into an intergenerational art class. Language and Education, 31(4), 351-373.

Hoel, T. (2013). Cultural features of performance in Norwegian children's narratives. Tidsskrift for Nordisk barnehageforskning, 6(17), 1-25.

Hoel, T. (2016). Exploring episodic affordance and response in children's narratives based on a picture book. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 24(2), 239-264.

Hopperstad, M. H., & Semundseth, M. (2012). Førskolelærers praksis og femåringers skriving i formelle læringssituasjoner i en norsk barnehage [Preschool teacher's practice and 5-year-olds' writing in formal learning situations in a Norwegian kindergarten]. Nordic Studies in Education, 32(03-04), 297-310. 04/frskolelrers_praksis_og_femringers_skriving_i_formelle_l

Hsin, C.-T., Li, M.-C., & Tsai, C.-C. (2014). The influence of young children's use of technology on their learning: A review. Educational Technology & Society, 17(4), 85-99.

Jacobsen, H., Loftsgarden, M., & Lundh, S. (2013). Barnehagemonitor 2013: Barnehagens digitale tilstand [The digital status of Norwegian kindergartens]. Senter for IKT i utdanningen. forskning/rapporter/2013/barnehagemonitor-2013.pdf

Jefferson, G. (2004). Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction. In G. H. Lerner (Ed.), Conversation analysis: Studies from the first generation (pp. 13-31). John Benjamins Publishing

Jernes, M. (2013). Interaksjoner i digitale kontekster i barnehagen [Interactions in digital contexts in kindergarten]. (Doctoral thesis). University of Stavanger. xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/185509/jernes_margrethe.pdf?se quence=1&isAllowed=y

Jernes, M., & Alvestad, M. (2017). Forskende fellesskap i barnehagen - utfordringer og muligheter [Researching community in kindergarten: Challenges and opportunities]. In A. Berge & E. Johansson (Eds.), Teori og praksis i barnehagevitenskapelig forskning (pp. 71-84). Universitetsforlaget.

Jernes, M., Alvestad, M., & Sinnerud, M. (2010). "Er det bra, eller?" Pedagogiske spenningsfelt i møte med digitale verktøy i norske barnehager ["Is it good, or not?" Pedagogical tensions when meeting digital tools in Norwegian kindergartens]. Tidsskrift for Nordisk barnehageforskning, 3(3), 115-131.

Jug, T., & Vilar, P. (2015). Focus group interview through storytelling: Researching pre-school children's attitudes towards books and reading. Journal of Documentation, 71(6), 1300-1316.

Kalas, I. (2010). Recognizing the potential of ICT in early childhood education: Analytical survey. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education.

Kervin, L., & Mantei, J. (2016). Digital storytelling: Capturing children's participation in preschool activities. Issues in Educational Research, 26(2), 225-240.

Kindergarten Act. (2005). Act relating to kindergartens (LOV-2005- 06-17-64). Ministry of Education and Research. Retrieved 02 April 2020 from 17-64

Kjørholt, A. T. (2012). "Childhood studies" and the ethics of an encounter: Reflections on research with children in different cultural contexts. In H. Fossheim (Ed.), Cross-cultural child research - ethical issuses (pp. 17-44). The Norwegian National Research Ethics Committees. publikasjoner-som-pdf/cross-cultural-child-research- webutgave.pdf

Kleeman, D. (2020). Five things that haven't changed (much). In C. Donohue (Ed.), Exploring key issues in early childhood and technology: Evolving perspectives and innovative approaches (pp. 16-19). Routledge.

Klerfelt, A. (2004). Ban the computer, or make it a storytelling machine: Bridging the gap between the children's media culture and pre-school. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 48(1), 73-93.

Klerfelt, A. (2007). Gestures in conversation - the significance of gestures and utterances when children and preschool teachers create stories using the computer. Computers & Education, 48(3), 335-361.

Kocaman-Karoglu, A. (2015). Telling stories digitally: An experiment with preschool children. Educational Media International, 52(4), 340-352.

Kozbelt, A., Beghetto, R. A., & Runco, M. A. (2010). Theories of creativity. In J. C. Kaufman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of creativity (pp. 20-47). Cambridge University Press.

Kress, G. (2010). Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. Routledge.

Kress, G., & Jewitt, C. (2003). Introduction. In C. Jewitt & G. Kress (Eds.), Multimodal literacy (pp. 1-18). Peter Lang Publishing.

Kress, G., & van Leeuwen, T. (2001). Multimodal discourse: The modes and media of contemporary communication. Arnold Hodder.

Krumsvik, R. J., & Røkenes, F. M. (2016). Litteraturreview i phd- avhandlingen [Literature review in the PhD thesis]. In R. J. Krumsvik (Ed.), En doktorgradsutdanning i endring: Et fokus på den artikkelbaserte ph.d.-avhandlingen (pp. 51-92). Fagbokforlaget.

Kucirkova, N. (2014). iPads in early education: Separating assumptions and evidence. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-3.

Kucirkova, N. (2017a). Digital personalization in early childhood: Impact on childhood. Bloomsbury.

Kucirkova, N. (2017b). New literacies and new media: The changing face of early literacy. In N. Kucirkova, C. E. Snow, V. Grøver, & C. McBride (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of early literacy education: A contemporary guide to literacy teaching and interventions in a global context (pp. 40-54). Routledge.

Kucirkova, N. (2018). How and why to read and create children's digital books: A guide for primary practitioners. UCL Press.

Kunnskapsdepartementet. (2008). Kvalitet i barnehagen [Quality in kindergarten]. (St.meld. no. 41 (2008-2009)). Ministry of Education and Research.

Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2009). Det kvalitative forskningsintervju [The qualitative research interview] (2nd ed.). Gyldendal Akademisk.

Leech, N. L., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2008). Qualitative data analysis: A compendium of techniques and a framework for selection for school psychology research and beyond. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 587-604.

Leinonen, J., & Sintonen, S. (2014). Productive participation - children as active media producers in kindergarten. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 9(3), 216-236. on_-_children_as_active_media_produce.pdf

Letnes, M.-A. (2014). Digital dannelse i barnehagen: Barnehagebarns meningsskaping i arbeid med multimodal fortelling [Digital building in kindergarten: Children's meaning-making when creating multimodal stories]. (Doctoral thesis). Norges teknisk- naturvitenskaplige universitet (NTNU), Trondheim.

Letnes, M.-A. (2019). Multimodal media production: Children's meaning making when producing animation in a play-based pedagogy. In C. Gray & I. Palaiologou (Eds.), Early learning in the digital age (pp. 180-195). Sage.

Letnes, M.-A., & Jæger, H. (2008). Bilde + tekst = språklig vekst [Image + text = linguistic growth]. In S. Kibsgaard (Ed.), Grunnleggende læring i et stimulerende miljø i barnehagen (pp. 161-175). Universitetsforlaget.

Letnes, M.-A., Sando, S., & Hardersen, B. (2016). Young children (0-8) and digital technology: A qualitative exploratory study - national report - Norway. Medietilsynet. children-0-8-and-digital-technology-2016.pdf

Luff, P., & Heath, C. (2012). Some "technical challenges" of video analysis: Social actions, objects, material realities and the problems of perspective. Qualitative Research, 12(3), 255-279.

Lunn Brownlee, J., Johansson, E., Walker, S., & Scholes, L. (2017). Teaching for active citizenship: Moral values and personal epistemology in early years classrooms. Routledge.

Madsen, C. (2008). Meningsfuld medinddragelse i undervisning og evaluering - et Dewey-perspektiv [Meaningful co-involvement in teaching and evaluation: A Dewey perspective]. In C. Madsen & P. Munch (Eds.), Med Dewey in mente (pp. 151- 171). Klim.

Mangen, A., Hoel, T., Jernes, M., & Moser, T. (2019). Shared, dialogue-based reading with books vs tablets in early childhood education and care (ECEC): Protocol for a mixed-methods intervention study. International Journal of Educational Research, 97, 88-98.

Marsh, J. (2006). Emergent media literacy: Digital animation in early childhood. Language and Education, 20(6), 493-506.

Marsh, J. (2010). Childhood, culture and creativity: A literature review. Creativity, Culture and Education. content/uploads/2018/10/CCE-childhood-culture-and-creativity- a-literature-review.pdf

Marsh, J., Kontovourki, S., Tafa, E., & Salomaa, S. (2017). Developing digital literacy in early years settings: Professional development needs for practitioners: A white paper for COST Action IS1410. COST: European Cooperation in Science and Technology. content/uploads/2017/01/WG2-LR-jan-2017.pdf

Maxwell, J. A. (2006). Literature reviews of, and for, educational research: A commentary on Boot and Beile's "Scholars before researchers". Educational Research, 35(9), 28-31.

Medietilsynet. (2018). Foreldre og medierundersøkelsen 2018: Foreldre til 1-18-åringer om medievaner og bruk [Parents of 1- 18-year olds about media habits and usage]. The Norwegian Media Authority. og-medier-undersokelser/2018-foreldre-og-medier

Merjovaaraa, O., Nousiainenb, T., Turjad, L., & Isotalod, S. (2020). Digital stories with children: Examining digital storytelling as a pedagogical process in ECEC. Journal of Early Childhood Education Research, 9(1), 99-123. stories-with-children-examining-digital-storytelling-as-a- pedagogical-process-in-ecec

Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2016). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (4th ed.). Jossey-Bass.

Mills, K. (2011). "Now I know their secrets": Kineikonic texts in the literacy classroom. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 34(1), 24-37.

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

Moe, J. (2018). Kreativitet [Creativity]. In N. S. Frisch, M.-A. Letnes, & J. Moe (Eds.), Boka om kunst og håndverk i barnehagen (pp. 127-151). Universitetsforlaget.

Moe, S. (2008). Deweys konstruktivisme. Luhmans konstruktivisme [Dewey's constructivism. Luhman's constructivism]. In C. Madsen & P. Munch (Eds.), Med Dewey in mente (pp. 83-104). Klim.

Morgan, M. S. (2014). Case studies. In N. Cartwright & E. Montuschi (Eds.), Philosophy of social science: A new introduction (pp. 288-307). Oxford University Press.

NESH. (2016). Guidelines for research ethics in the social sciences, humanities, law and theology (4th ed.). The Norwegian National Research Ethics Committees. publikasjoner-som-pdf/60127_fek_guidelines_nesh_digital.pdf

New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66(1), 60-93.

Nicholas, M. (2018). Affordances of using multiple videoed events to construct a rich understanding of adult-child book readings. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 41(2), 125-141.

Nickerson, R. S. (1999). Enhancing creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 392-432). Cambridge University Press.

Nicolopoulou, A. (2011). Children's storytelling: Toward an interpretive and sociocultural approach. Storyworlds: A Journal of Narrative Studies, 3, 25-48.

OECD. (2012). Starting Strong III: A quality toolbox for early childhood education and care. Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development.

OECD. (2017). Starting Strong V: Transitions from early childhood education and care to primary education. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Palaiologou, C., & Tsampra, E. (2018). Artistic action and stop motion animation for preschool children in the particular context of the summer camps organized by the Athens Open Schools Institution: A case study. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 17(9), 1-17.

Personopplysningsloven. (2018). Lov om behandling av personopplysninger [The Personal Data Act] (LOV-2018-06- 15-38). Justis- og beredskapsdepartementet. Retrieved 02 April 2020 from 38?q=personopplysningsloven

Petersen, P. (2015). "That's how much I can do!" Children's agency in digital tablet activities in a Swedish preschool environment. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 10(3), 145-169. an_do_-_childrens_agency_in_digita.pdf

Plowman, L., McPake, J., & Stephen, C. (2010). The technologisation of childhood? Young children and technology in the home. Children & Society, 24, 63-74.

Plowman, L., & Stephen, C. (2007). Guided interaction in pre-school settings. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23(1), 14-26.

QSR International Pty Ltd. (2018). NVivo 12 Pro (Version; 64-bit) [Software].

Ranker, J. (2014). The emergence of semiotic resource complexes in the composing processes of young students in a literacy classroom context. Linguistics and Education, 25(1), 129-144.

Red Jumper Limited. (2018). Book Creator (Version 5.1.10) [App]. App Store.

Researchware. (2013). Hyper Transcribe (Version 1.6.1) [Software].

Resnick, M. (2006). Computer as paintbrush: Technology, play and the creative society. In D. G. Singer, R. M. Golinkoff, & K. Hirsh- Pasek (Eds.), Play = learning: How play motivates and enhances children's cognitive and social-emotional growth (pp. 192-206). Oxford University Press.

Ritchie, J., Spencer, L., & O'Connor, W. (2003). Carrying out qualitative analysis. In J. Ritchie & J. Lewis (Eds.), Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers (pp. 219-262). Sage.

Robinson, K. (2011). Out of our minds: Learning to be creative (2nd ed.). Capstone.

Rowsell, J., & Harwood, D. (2015). "Let it go": Exploring the image of the child as a producer, consumer, and inventor. Theory Into Practice, 54(2), 136-146.

Sakr, M., Connelly, V., & Wild, M. (2016). Narrative in young children's digital art-making. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 16(3), 289-310.

Sakr, M., Trivedy, B., Hall, N., O'Brien, L., & Federici, R. (2018). Creativity and making in early childhood: Challenging practitioner perspectives. Bloomsbury Academic.

Sawyer, R. K. (2010). Individual and group creativity. In J. C. Kaufman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of creativity (pp. 366-380). Cambridge University Press.

Sawyer, R. K., & DeZutter, S. (2009). Distributed creativitiy: How collective creations emerge from collaboration. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 3(2), 81-92.

Sefton-Green, J., Marsh, J., Erstad, O., & Flewitt, R. (2016). Establishing a research agenda for the digital literacy practices of young children: A white paper for COST Action IS1410. COST: European Cooperation in Science and Technology. content/uploads/2015/09/DigiLitEYWP.pdf

Sefton-Green, J., & Reiss, V. (1999). Multimedia literacies: Developing the creative uses of new technology with young people. In J. Sefton-Green (Ed.), Young people, creativity and new technologies: The challenge of digital arts (pp. 1-11). Routledge.

Selwyn, N. (2010). Looking beyond learning: Notes towards the critical study of educational technology. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(1), 65-73.

Selwyn, N. (2011). Education and technology: Key issues and debates. Continuum.

Silverman, D. (2011). Interpreting qualitative data: A guide to the principles of qualitative research (4th ed.). Sage.

Siraj-Blatchford, I., & Sylva, K. (2004). Researching pedagogy in English pre-schools. British Educational Research Journal, 30(5), 713-730.

Skantz Åberg, E. (2017). "Horrible or happy - We'll have a little grey now": Aesthetic judgements in children's narration with an interactive whiteboard. International Journal of Early Years Education, 25(1), 72-88.

Skantz Åberg, E. (2018). Children's collaborative technology-mediated storymaking: Instructional challenges in early childhood education. (Doctoral thesis). University of Gothenburg. 58_4.PDF

Skantz Åberg, E., Lantz-Andersson, A., & Pramling, N. (2015). Children's digital storymaking: The negotiated nature of instructional literacy events. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 10(3), 170-189. making_-_the_negotiated_nature_of_i.pdf

Smule. (2017). Auto Rap (Version 2.3.5) [App]. App Store.

Snow, C. E. (2017). Early literacy development and instruction: An overview. In N. Kucirkova, C. E. Snow, V. Grøver, & C. McBride (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of early literacy education: A contemporary guide to literacy teaching and interventions in a global context (pp. 5-13). Routledge.

Somers, M. (1994). The narrative constitution of identity: A relational and network approach. Theory and Society, 23, 605-649.

Stephen, C., & Edwards, S. (2018). Young children playing and learning in a digital age: A cultural and critical perspective. Routledge.

Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T. (1999). The concept of creativity: Prospects and paradigms. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 3-15). Cambridge University Press.

Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I., & Taggart, B. (2004). The effective provision of pre-school education (EPPE) project: Final report: A longitudinal study funded by the DfES 1997-2004. University of London.

Säljö, R. (2016). Læring - en introduksjon til perspektiver og metaforer [Learning: An introduction to perspectives and metaphors]. Cappelen Damm akademisk.

Säljö, R. (2017). Apps and learning: A sociocultural perspective. In N. Kucirkova & G. Falloon (Eds.), Apps, technology and younger learners: International evidence for teaching (pp. 3-13). Routledge.

Säljö, R. (2019). Materiality, learning and cognitive practices: Artifacts as instruments of thinking. In T. Cerratto Pargman & I. Jahnke (Eds.), Emergent practices and material conditions in learning and teachning with technologies (pp. 21-32). Springer.

Tønnessen, E. S. (2012). Digitale fortellinger som multimodal tekst [Digital stories as multimodal texts]. In K. H. Haug, G. Jamissen, & C. Ohlmann (Eds.), Digitalt fortalte historier: Refleksjon for læring (pp. 61-76). Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Tønnessen, E. S., & Hoel, T. (2019). Designing dialogs around picture book apps. In J. E. Kim & B. Hassinger-Das (Eds.), Reading in the digital age: Young children's experiences with e-books (pp. 197-215). Springer.

Udir. (2017). Framework plan for kindergartens. The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. k-plan-for-kindergartens2-2017.pdf

UHR-Lærerutdanning. (2018). Nasjonale retningslinjer for barnehagelærerutdanning [National guidelines for kindergarten teacher education]. Universitets- og høgskolerådet. 2110165de29d/blu-nasjonale-retningslinjer-ferdig-godkjent.pdf

UN. (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. United Nations.

Undheim, M. (2015a). Del gleder - digital kompetanse i barnehagen [Digital competence in kindergarten] (2nd ed.). Gan Aschehoug.

Undheim, M. (2015b). Hvorfor har vi blå striper på armen? Temaperioder og prosjektarbeid med barnehagebarn [Why do we have blue lines on our arm? Theme- and project periods with kindergarten children]. Info Vest forlag.

Undheim, M. (2020). "We need sound too!" Children and teachers creating multimodal digital stories together. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 15(3), 165-177.

Undheim, M., & Hoel, T. (Accepted with some revisions). An animated story created by a group of young children. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy.

Undheim, M., & Jernes, M. (2020). Teachers' pedagogical strategies when creating digital stories with young children. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 28(2), 256-271.

Undheim, M., & Vangsnes, V. (2017). Digitale fortellinger i barnehagen [Digital stories in kindergarten]. Tidsskrift for Nordisk barnehageforskning, 15(3), 1-15.

Vaage, S. (2001). Perspektivtaking, rekonstruksjon av erfaring og kreative læreprosessar: George Herbert Mead og John Dewey om læring [Perspective taking, reconstructing experience and creative learning processes: George Herbert Mead and John Dewey on learning]. In O. Dysthe (Ed.), Dialog, samspel og læring (pp. 129-150). Abstrakt forlag.

Voogt, J., & Roblin, N. P. (2012). A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: Implications for national curriculum policies. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 44(3), 299-321.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language. MIT Press.

Walt Disney Animation Studios. (2011). To på rømmen [Tangled] [animated musical]. Walt Disney Pictures.

Waterhouse, A.-H. L. (2019). Kneippbrød og piksler - med bildeboka ut i rommet gjennom visuelle og romlige transformasjoner [Visual and spatial transformations of a picture book]. In H. Jæger, M. Sandvik, & A.-H. L. Waterhouse (Eds.), Digitale barnehagepraksiser: Teknologier, medier og muligheter (pp. 92-114). Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Winger, N., & Eide, B. J. (2015). "Nytråkk" i gamle spor. Retrospektivt blikk på hverdagslivet i en småbarnsgruppe [Touring old tracks: Retrospective views of everyday life in a toddler group]. Tidsskrift for Nordisk barnehageforskning, 9(4), 1-22.

Winters, K.-L., & Memme, L. (2017). Digital inquiry and socio-critical negotiations in two early childhood classrooms. In D. Harwood (Ed.), Crayons and iPads: Learning and teaching of young children in the digital world (pp. 29-41). Sage.

Wohlwend, K. E. (2017). Who gets to play? Access, popular media and participatory literacies. Early Years, 37(1), 62-76.

Wood, D., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17(2), 89-100.

Yamada-Rice, D. (2014). The semiotic landscape and 3-year-olds' emerging understanding of multimodal communication practices. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 12(2), 154- 184.

Yelland, N. (2017). Teaching and learning with tablets: A case study of twenty-first-century skills and new learning. In N. Kucirkova & G. Falloon (Eds.), Apps, technology and younger learners: International evidence for teaching (pp. 57-72). Routledge.

Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). Sage.

Cover image



October 20, 2020


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.