Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of IOR solutions on the Norwegian Continental Shelf


The National IOR Centre of Norway, environmental risk assessment, ERA, IOR, increased oil recovery, EOR, enhanced oil recovery


The aim of the Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) work at the IOR Centre is to provide methods, procedures, and key data to enable assessment of environmental risk in relation to IOR solutions (products and processes) elaborated at the center.

The objective of this report is to provide a user guidance summary on methods and tools to conduct ERA related to different IOR solutions. It will explain workflows, expertise, and tools needed in relation to different types of IOR solutions applied.

The report is foremost addressed to environmental engineers in the oil and gas industry, but will also be relevant for environmental managers, environmental authorities and regulators as well as for suppliers of chemical products and environmental services.

Author Biographies

Mehul Arun Vora

Faculty of Science and Technology
Department of Safety, Economics and Planning
University of Stavanger

Steinar Sanni

Associate professor
Faculty of Science and Technology
Department of Chemistry, Bioscience and Environmental Engineering
University of Stavanger

Roger Flage

Faculty of Science and Technology
Department of Safety, Economics and Planning
University of Stavanger


Brakstad, O. G., Altin, D., Davies, E. J., Aas, M., & Nordtug, T. (2020). Interaction between microalgae, marine snow and anionic polyacrylamide APAM at marine conditions. The Science of the total environment, 705, 135950.

Brooks SJ, Harman C, Grung M, Farmen E, Ruus A, Vingen S, Godal BF, Baršienė J, Andreikėnaitė L, Skarphéðinsdóttir H, Liewenborg B, Sundt RC, 2011. Water Column Monitoring of the Biological Effects of Produced Water from the Ekofisk Offshore Oil Installation from 2006 to 2009. J Toxicol Environ Health, Part A 74 (7): 582-604.

European Chemical Agency (ECHA), 2008b. Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment. Chapter R.10: Characterisation of Dose [Concentration]-Response for Environment. Available from https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/13632/information_requirements_r10_en.pdf/bb902be7-a503-4ab7-9036-d866b8ddce69

Fonseca, R., Della Rossa, E., Emerick, A., Hanea, R. and Jansen, J. [2018] Overview of the olympus field development optimization challenge. In: ECMOR XVI-16th European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery, 2018. European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers, 1-10.

Farkas, J., Altin, D., Hansen, H, B., Øverjordet, B, I & Nordtug, T. (2020). "Acute and long-term effects of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) on different developmental stages of two marine copepod species", Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535

Hansen, H, B., Malzahn, A., Hagemann, A., Farkas, J., Skancke, J., Altin, D. & Nordtug, T. (2019) "Acute and sub-lethal effects of an anionic polyacrylamide on sensitive early life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)", Science of The Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697

Gillenwater, M., 2005. Calculation Tool for Direct Emissions from Stationary Combustion. WRI/WBCSD Tool. Available from https://ghgprotocol.org/sites/default/files/Stationary_Combustion_Guidance_final_1.pdf (Accessed 15/08/2021)

Johnsen, S., Frost, T.K., et al., (2000). The Environmental Impact Factor - a proposed tool for produced water impact reduction, management and regulation. Soc.Petr.Eng.

Oguntola, M. and Lorentzen, R. (2020). On the Robust Value Quantification of Polymer EOR Injection Strategies for Better Decision Making. In: ECMOR XVII, 2020. European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers, 1-25.

Opsahl, E., HIORth, A & Kommedal, R. (in subm. 2022). "Measuring and modeling indirect photocatalytic depolymerization rates and marine lifetime predictions for water-soluble synthetic polymers". In prep

Opsahl, E & Kommedal, R. (in subm. 2022). Basal cytotoxic potency of some water-soluble polymers and reference compounds in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) RT-W1 gill epithelial cells - is polymer configuration, concomitant discharge, or mode of degradation important?

OSPAR Guidelines for Completing the Harmonised Offshore Chemical Notification Format (HOCNF). OSPAR Agreement: 2012/05. Update 2020. Available from https://www.ospar.org/work-areas/oic

Rasmussen, A.F., Sandve, T.H., Bao, K., Lauser, A., Hove, J., Skaflestad, B., Kl¨ofkorn, R., Blatt, M., Rustad, A.B., Sævareid, O. et al. [2020] The open porous media flow reservoir simulator. Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 81, 159-185.

Reed, M., and B. Hetland. (2002). "DREAM: a Dose-Related Exposure Assessment Model Technical Description of Physical-Chemical Fates Components." Paper presented at the SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Sanni S, Lyng E and Pampanin DM, 2017. III: Use of biomarkers as risk indicators in environmental risk assessment of oil-based discharges offshore. Marine Environ Res. 127: 1-10.

Singsaas, I., Rye, H., Frost, T. K., Smit, M. G., Garpestad, E., Skare, I., Bakke, K., Veiga, L. F., Buffagni, M., Follum, O. A., Johnsen, S., Moltu, U. E., & Reed, M. (2008). Development of a risk-based environmental management tool for drilling discharges. Summary of a four-year project. Integrated environmental assessment and management, 4(2), 171-176.

US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA), 1998. Guidelines for ecological risk assessment. USEPA, Risk Assessment Forum, Washington DC. EPA/630/R-95/002F, Available from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-11/documents/eco_risk_assessment1998.pdf

Vora, M., Sanni, S & Flage, R. (2021). An environmental risk assessment framework for enhanced oil recovery solutions from offshore oil and gas industry, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, ISSN 0195-9255.

Vora, M., Gamlem, J., Sanni, S & Flage, R. (2022). Environmental risk assessment of inter-well tracer compounds shortlisted for offshore oil and gas industry. Energy Exploration & Exploitation
Cover image



June 30, 2022

Online ISSN



Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.