Læreres samtaler som mulighetsrom for læring: En kvalitativ studie av lærersamtaler i Lesson Study

Authors

Anne Mette Færøyvik Karlsen
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6017-9338

Keywords:

pedagogikk, lærersamtaler, Lesson Study, profesjonslæring

Synopsis

I dag pålegges lærere samarbeid gjennom nasjonale og lokale arbeidstidsordninger. Det er blitt stadig mer aktuelt å utforske hvordan lærere kan lære på arbeidsplassen, i samarbeid med kolleger i profesjonelle læringsfellesskap. I denne studien utforskes læreres samtaler i Lesson Study (LS), en tilnærming til profesjonslæring som er spredt over hele verden. I en tid der flere norske skoler prøver ut LS i ulike varianter, er målet med denne studien å peke på noen faktorer som kan være avgjørende for at lærersamtaler i LS kan bidra til læreres læring. Den overordnede problemstillingen for studien er: Hvordan kan lærersamtaler i Lesson Study bidra til å fremme profesjonslæring?

I studien er samtaler mellom lærere belyst ved hjelp av det sosiokulturelle læringsperspektivet. Studien er forankret i sosialkonstruktivisme som overordnet forskningsparadigme, en posisjon som innebærer at kunnskap blir oppfattet som en konstruksjon av forståelse og mening i møte mellom mennesker. Studien har et kvalitativt design, der data ble samlet inn gjennom at forskeren inntok rollen som delvis deltakende observatør i to ulike LS-grupper på en ungdomsskole våren og høsten 2017. Materialet som er analysert består av lydopptak av lærersamtaler, lydopptak av gruppeintervju med elever og spørreskjema til elever. Den analytiske tilnærmingen til materialet veksler mellom empirisk nærhet (induktiv tilnærming) og teoretisk forankring (deduktiv tilnærming).

Studien peker på betydningen av et empirisk fundament for lærerdiskusjonene i etterkant av forskningstimene, i form av elevdata. Resultatet indikerer at deling av planlagte, strukturerte og detaljerte elevobservasjoner er et viktig utgangspunkt for tolkning, evaluering og planlegging av læring og undervisning. Videre ser det ut til at tilgang til elevperspektivet kan gi LS-gruppen innsikt som påvirker den videre planleggingen og gjennomføringen av undervisningen. Samtidig peker studien på at deltakernes undersøkende tilnærming til elevdata kan fremme mulighetene for profesjonslæring i lærersamtaler. Interaksjonene mellom lærerne i LS-gruppene blir løftet fram som sentralt både for retningen og dybden i hva lærergruppen gir oppmerksomhet til. Slik gir denne studien kunnskap om betydningen av hvordan lærere snakker sammen når de deler og tolker data fra klasserommet.

Samlet sett viser resultatene fra delstudiene at LS som læringsform representerer en støttende struktur for utforsking av elevers læring, men at hvorvidt potensialet for profesjonslæring blir utnyttet avhenger av flere faktorer. Utfordringene ligger i å ivareta essensielle særtrekk ved LS, som å ta på alvor selve navet i Lesson Study, forskningstimen, som en mulighet til å utforske praksis ved hjelp av utprøving av undervisning og planlagte, strukturerte observasjoner av elevers læring. Studien peker på at deling av elevdata er selve fundamentet i lærersamtalene som er studert, og dermed også en forutsetning for profesjonslæring i form av ny innsikt om sammenhengen mellom undervisningen og elevers læring.

Dette resultatet gir lærere og skoleledere som ønsker å arbeide med LS innspill til avgjørelser og avveininger knyttet til å bruke LS som læringsform for lærere. Samtidig bidrar studien med kunnskap om lærersamtaler som kan ha overføringsverdi til andre kontekster enn LS.

Author Biography

Anne Mette Færøyvik Karlsen

Stipendiat
Fakultet for utdanningsvitenskap og humaniora
Institutt for grunnskolelærerutdanning, idrett og spesialpedagogikk
Universitetet i Stavanger
anne.m.karlsen@uis.no

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May 19, 2022