Development of self-regulation and academic skills: The role of child factors, socioeconomic status, and cultural context

Keywords: self-regulation, academic skills, early childhood


Early childhood is a period of rapid learning and development, and research has made us increasingly aware of how crucial children’s early experiences are both for their current well-being and for their future adjustment, well-being, and academic achievement. The present thesis investigates the role of child gender and self-regulation, family socioeconomic status (SES), and cultural context for predicting children’s academic skills and self-regulation. It includes three studies, which all rely on data from a Norwegian research project. One of them— a comparative study—also relies on data from research conducted in the United States (U.S.).

The thesis had four overarching goals across the three studies. The first goal was to investigate the direct and indirect pathways from early self- regulation to fifth-grade academic achievement (Study II). The results showed that Norwegian children’s early self-regulation was foundational for their later reading comprehension and mathematical achievement. The second goal was to investigate the role of child gender for predicting early-childhood academic skills (Study I) and self-regulation (Study III). Results revealed small gender differences (favoring girls) in mathematical skills and self-regulation in the spring of the last year of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) among Norwegian children, but no such differences in vocabulary. There were no gender effects on the change in vocabulary and mathematical skills to the spring of first grade. The third goal was to examine the role of family SES (maternal education) for predicting children’s early-childhood academic skills (Study I) and self-regulation (Study III). The results showed SES- related differences in Norwegian children’s vocabulary and mathematical skills in ECEC but not in their self-regulation. Further, the change seen in academic skills from ECEC to first grade was not affected by SES. Finally, the fourth goal was to study levels of early-childhood self-regulation and the role of maternal education and child gender for predicting self-regulation in Norway and the United States (Study III). Findings showed that children’s average level of self-regulation did not differ significantly across the two samples. Norwegian girls did have higher self-regulation scores than boys while there were no such gender differences in the U.S. sample, but this difference between the samples was not significant. However, maternal education significantly predicted U.S. children’s self-regulation but not that of Norwegian children, and this difference was significant across the samples.

The results are interpreted in light of the Bioecological Model of Development, previous evidence, and the social contexts from which the samples derive. Implications, especially for Norwegian ECEC, have been thoroughly discussed. The present thesis highlights the importance of conducting studies across groups and cultural contexts to understand the complexity of child development. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of bringing self-regulation as a concept into Norwegian ECEC. In research and practice across the world, self-regulation is seen as foundational for early-childhood learning and development, but this concept is not even mentioned in the Norwegian framework plan for ECEC, which may affect pedagogical practices negatively.

The international literature on these topics is considerable, but this thesis contributes to our knowledge by investigating self-regulation in a Norwegian cultural and educational context. In addition, it has a longitudinal design that enables examination of long-term direct and indirect associations between early self-regulation and later academic achievement. This thesis also contributes by investigating the role of child gender and SES for predicting academic skills across two different educational contexts, namely the play-based ECEC and the structured first-grade classroom. Finally, this thesis includes a comparative study, which sheds light on the importance of conducting studies across cultural contexts, given that results from one context may not be valid for another.

Author Biography

Ragnhild Lenes

University lecturer
University of Stavanger
Faculty of Arts and Education
Norwegian Centre for Learning Environment and Behavioural Research in Education


Adamson, P. (2008). The Child Care Transition: A league table of early childhood education and care in economically advanced countries. Retrieved from https://www.unicef- table-of-early-childhood-education-and-care-in.html

Allan, N. P., Hume, L. E., Allan, D. M., Farrington, A. L., & Lonigan, C. J. (2014). Relations between inhibitory control and the development of academic skills in preschool and kindergarten: A meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 50(10), 2368-2379. doi:

Alvestad, M., Johansson, J.-E., Moser, T., & Søbstad, F. (2009). Status og utfordringer i norsk barnehageforskning. Tidsskrift for Nordisk Barnehageforskning, 2(1). doi:

American Psychological Association (APA). (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6 ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

Arnold, D. H., Zeljo, A., Doctoroff, G. L., & Ortiz, C. (2008). Parent involvement in preschool: Predictors and the relation of involvement to preliteracy development. School Psychology Review, 37(1), 74-90. Retrieved from 6945

Aubrey, C., Godfrey, R., & Dahl, S. (2006). Early mathematics development and later achievement: Further evidence. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 18(1), 27-46. doi:

Aunio, P., Hautamäki, J., Heiskari, P., & Van Luit, J. E. H. (2006). The Early Numeracy Test in Finnish: Children's norms. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 47(5), 369-378. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 9450.2006.00538.x

Aunio, P., & Niemivirta, M. (2010). Predicting children's mathematical performance in grade one by early numeracy. Learning & Individual Differences, 20(5), 427-435. doi:

Aunio, P., Niemivirta, M., Hautamäki, J., Van Luit, J. E. H., Shi, J., & Zhang, M. (2006). Young Children's Number Sense in China and Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 50(5), 483-502. doi:10.1080/00313830600953576

Aunola, K., Leskinen, E., Lerkkanen, M.-K., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2004). Developmental Dynamics of Math Performance From Preschool to Grade 2. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 699-713. doi:

Autor, D., Figlio, D., Karbownik, K., Roth, J., & Wasserman, M. (2016a). Family Disadvantage and the Gender Gap in Behavioral and Educational Outcomes NBER Working Paper No. w22267.

Autor, D., Figlio, D., Karbownik, K., Roth, J., & Wasserman, M. (2016b). School Quality and the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement. American Economic Review, 106(5), 289-295. doi:10.1257/aer.p20161074

Backe-Hansen, E., Walhovd, K. B., & Huang, L. (2014). Kjønnsforskjeller i skoleprestasjoner. En kunnskapsoversikt. [Gender differences in school performance] Retrieved from NOVA rapport 5/14. Norsk institutt for forskning om oppvekst, velferd og aldring: 02.09.15 HiOA/Senter-for-velferds-og- arbeidslivsforskning/NOVA/Publikasjonar/Rapporter/20142/Kjoennsforskjeller-i-skoleprestasjoner

Backer-Grøndahl, A., & Nærde, A. (2017). Self-regulation in early childhood: The role of siblings, center care and socioeconomic status. Social Development 26(3), 530-544. doi:10.1111/sode.12216

Bakken, A., Borg, E., Hegna, K., & Backe-Hansen, E. (2008). Rapport 4/2008. Er det skolens skyld? En kunnskapsoversikt om skolens bidrag til kjønnsforskjeller i skoleprestasjoner. Oslo: NOVA, Norsk institutt for forskning om oppvekst, velferd og aldring Retrieved from 31.03.14.

Bakken, A., & Elstad, J. I. (2012). Rapport 7/12. For store forventninger? Oslo: NOVA, Norsk Institutt for forskning om oppvekst, velferd og aldring Retrieved from 31.03.14.

Barth, E. (2005). Den samfunnsmessige avkastningen av utdanning (The communal profit of education) (Statistics Norway). Utdanning, 168-190.

Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2004). Handbook of self-regulation: research, theory, and applications. New York: Guilford Press.

Birgisdottir, F., Gestsdottir, S., & Geldhof, G. J. (2020). Early predictors of first and fourth grade reading and math: The role of self- regulation and early literacy skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 53, 507-519. doi:

Birgisdóttir, F., Gestsdóttir, S., & Thorsdóttir, F. (2015). The Role of Behavioral Self-Regulation in Learning to Read: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Icelandic Preschool Children. Early Education and Development, 26(5-6), 807-828. doi:10.1080/10409289.2015.1003505

Bjørnestad, E., Broekhuizen, M. L., Os, E., & Baustad, A. G. (2019). Interaction Quality in Norwegian ECEC for Toddlers Measured with the Caregiver Interaction Profile (CIP) Scales. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 1-20. doi:10.1080/00313831.2019.1639813

Bjørnestad, E., & Os, E. (2018). Quality in Norwegian childcare for toddlers using ITERS-R. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 26(1), 111-127. doi:10.1080/1350293X.2018.1412051

Blair, C., Protzko, J., & Ursache, A. (2011). Self-regulation and early literacy. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (Vol. 3, pp. 20-35). New York: The Guilford Press.

Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2012). Individual development and evolution: Experiential canalization of self-regulation. Developmental Psychology, 48(3), 647-657. doi:10.1037/a0026472

Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating Effortful Control, Executive Function, and False Belief Understanding to Emerging Math and Literacy Ability in Kindergarten. Child Development, 78(2), 647- 663. doi:

Blair, C., & Ursache, A. (2011). A bidirectional model of executive functions and self-regulation. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation. Research, theory, and applications (Second ed., pp. 300-320). New York: The Guilford Press.

Blair, C., Ursache, A., Greenberg, M., & Vernon-Feagans, L. (2015). Multiple aspects of self-regulation uniquely predict mathematics but not letter-word knowledge in the early elementary grades. Developmental Psychology, 51(4), 459-472. doi:10.1037/a0038813

Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2020). The impact of psychological science on early childhood education: Child's mind in society - a Vygotskian approach to early childhood education. In D. F. Gullo & M. E. Graue (Eds.), Scientific influences on early childhood. From diverse perspectives to common practices (pp. 79-92). New York: Routledge.

Bohlmann, N. L., & Downer, J. T. (2016). Self-Regulation and Task Engagement as Predictors of Emergent Language and Literacy Skills. Early Education and Development, 27(1), 18-37. doi:10.1080/10409289.2015.1046784

Bornstein, M. H., Hahn, C.-S., Suwalsky, J. T. D., & Haynes, O. M. (2003). Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development: The Hollingshead Four-factor Index Sosial Status and the Socioeconomic Index of Occupations In R. H. Bradley & M. H. Bornstein (Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bornstein, M. H., & Leventhal, T. (2015). Children in Bieecological Landscapes of Development. In M. H. Bornstein, T. Leventhal, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science. Ecological Settings and Processes (Vol. 4, pp. 1-5). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Bouchard, C., Trudeau, N., Sutton, A. N. N., Boudreault, M.-C., & Deneault, J. (2009). Gender differences in language development in French Canadian children between 8 and 30 months of age. Applied Psycholinguistics, 30(4), 685-707. doi:

Bradley, R. H., & Bornstein, M. H. (2003). Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2003). Age and Ethnic Variations in Family Process Mediators of SES. In R. H. Bradley & M. H. Bornstein (Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development (pp. 161-188). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Brandlistuen, R. E., Flatø, M., Stoltenberg, C., Helland, S. S., & Wang, M. V. (2020). Gender gaps in preschool age: A study of behavior, neurodevelopment and pre-academic skills. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 1403494820944740. doi:10.1177/1403494820944740

Braze, D., Tabor, W., Shankweiler, D. P., & Mencl, W. E. (2007). Speaking Up for Vocabulary. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(3), 226-243. doi:10.1177/00222194070400030401

Brock, L. L., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Nathanson, L., & Grimm, K. J. (2009). The contributions of 'hot' and 'cool' executive function to children's academic achievement, learning-related behaviors, and engagement in kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24(3), 337-349. doi:

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005a). The bioecological theory og human development. In U. Bronfenbrenner (Ed.), Making human beings human. Bioecological perspectives on human development (pp. 3-15). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005b). A future perspective. In U. Bronfenbrenner (Ed.), Making human being human. Biological perspectives on human development (pp. 50-59). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005c). Making human beings human. Bioecological perspectives on human development. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (2006). Bioecological model of development. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 793-828). Hoboken, New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Broström, S., Einarsdottir, J., & Samuelsson, I. P. (2018). The nordic perspective on early childhood education and care. In M. Fleer & B. van Oers (Eds.), International handbook of early childhood education. doi:10.1007/978-94-024-0927-7

Brown, T. (2010). Construct Validity: A Unitary Concept for Occupational Therapy Assessment and Measurement. Hong Kong Journal of Occupational Therapy, 20(1), 30-42. doi:

Bryant, F. B., & Satorra, A. (2013). EXCEL macro file for conducting scaled difference chi-square tests via LISREL 8, LISREL 9, EQS, and Mplus. Retrieved 05.03.21 df

Bull, R., & Lee, K. (2014). Executive Functioning and Mathematics Achievement. Child Development Perspectives, 8(1), 36-41. doi:10.1111/cdep.12059

Bull, R., & Scerif, G. (2001). Executive Functioning as a Predictor of Children's Mathematics Ability: Inhibition, Switching, and Working Memory. Developmental Neuropsychology, 19(3), 273-293. doi:10.1207/S15326942DN1903_3

Butterfuss, R., & Kendeou, P. (2018). The Role of Executive Functions in Reading Comprehension. Educational Psychology Review, 30(3), 801-826. doi:10.1007/s10648-017-9422-6

Byrne, B. M. (2012). Structual Equation Modeling with Mplus. Basic concepts, applicatons, and programming. Great Britain: Taylor and Francis Group.

Byrnes, J. P., & Wasik, B. A. (2009). Factors predictive of mathematics achievement in kindergarten, first and third grades: An opportunity-propensity analysis. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(2), 167-183. doi:

Bøe, T., Øverland, S., Lundervold, A. J., & Hysing, M. (2012). Socioeconomic status and children's mental health: results from the Bergen Child Study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(10), 1557-1566. doi:10.1007/s00127-011-0462-9

Cameron Ponitz, C. E., McClelland, M. M., Matthews, J. S., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). A structured observation of behavioral self- regulation and its contribution to kindergarten outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 605-619. doi:10.1037/a0015365

Cameron Ponitz, C. E., Rimm‐Kaufman, S. E., Brock, L. L., & Nathanson, L. (2009). Early Adjustment, Gender Differences, and Classroom Organizational Climate in First Grade. The Elementary School Journal, 110(2), 142-162. doi:10.1086/605470

Campbell, S. B., Denham, S. A., Howarth, G. Z., Jones, S. M., Whittaker, J. V., Williford, A. P., . . . Darling-Churchill, K. (2016). Commentary on the review of measures of early childhood social and emotional development: Conceptualization, critique, and recommendations. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 45, 19-41. doi:

Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Building the Brain's "Air Traffic Control" System: How Early Experiences Shape the Development of Executive Function: Working Paper No.11. Retrieved from 06.12.2018 content/uploads/2011/05/How-Early-Experiences-Shape-the- Development-of-Executive-Function.pdf

Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating Goodness-of-Fit Indexes for Testing Measurement Invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9(2), 233-255. doi:10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5

Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2014). Learning and teaching early math. The learning trajectories approach (2 ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis.

Conger, R. D., & Dogan, S. J. (2007). Social class and socialization in families. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: theory and research. (pp. 433-461). New York: Guilford Press.

Conger, R. D., & Donnellan, M. B. (2007). An Interactionist Perspective on the Socioeconomic Context of Human Development. Annual Review of Psychology, 58(1), 175-199. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085551

Conners, F. A. (2009). Attentional control and the Simple View of reading. Reading and Writing, 22(5), 591-613. doi:10.1007/s11145-008-9126-x

Conway, A., Waldfogel, J., & Wang, Y. (2018). Parent education and income gradients in children's executive functions at kindergarten entry. Children and Youth Services Review, 91, 329-337. doi:

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, D. J. (2018). Research design. Qualitative, quantiative, & mixed methods approaches (Fifth ed.). London, United Kingdom: SAGE publications, Ltd.

Cronbach, L. J. (1975). Beyond the two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 30(2), 116-127. doi:10.1037/h0076829

Cunha, F., & Heckman, J. (2007). The Technology of Skill Formation. American Economic Review, 97(2), 31-47. doi:10.1257/aer.97.2.31

DiPrete, T. A., & Jennings, J. L. (2012). Social and behavioral skills and the gender gap in early educational achievement. Social Science Research, 41(1), 1-15. doi:

Distefano, R., Galinsky, E., & Zelazo, P. D. (2020). The influence of neuroscience on early childhood education. In D. F. Gullo & M. E. Graue (Eds.), Scientific influences on early childhood. From diverse perspectives to common practices (pp. 176-190). New York: Routledge.

Dowsett, S. M., & Livesey, D. J. (2000). The development of inhibitory control in preschool children: Effects of "executive skills" training. 36(2), 161-174. doi:10.1002/(sici)1098- 2302(200003)36:2<161::Aid-dev7>3.0.Co;2-0<161::AID-DEV7>3.0.CO;2-0

Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., Japel, C. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428-1446. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.43.6.1428

Duncan, G. J., & Magnuson, K. A. (2003). Off with Hollingshead: Socioeconomic resources, parenting and child development. In R. H. Bradley & M. H. Bornstein (Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development (pp. 83-107). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Duncan, T. E., & Duncan, S. C. (2009). The ABC's of LGM: An Introductory Guide to Latent Variable Growth Curve Modeling. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3(6), 979-991. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2009.00224.x

Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., & Strycker, L. A. (2006). Specification of the LGM. In T. E. Duncan, S. C. Duncan, & L. A. Strycker (Eds.), An Introduction to Latent variable Growth Curve Modeling. Concepts, Issues, and Applications (second ed., pp. 20-27). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Early Care and Education Profiles. (2018). 2018 Oregon Child Care Research Partnership, Oregon State University. Retrieved from 21.05.2019 early-learners/pdf/county-summary/2018/hood- river_profile_22aug18-compressed.pdf

Eilertsen, T., Thorsen, A. L., Holm, S. E. H., Bøe, T., Sørensen, L., & Lundervold, A. J. (2016). Parental socioeconomic status and child intellectual functioning in a Norwegian sample. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 57(5), 399-405. doi:10.1111/sjop.12324

Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied Missing Data Analysis. New York: The Guilford Press.

Engel, A., Barnett, W. S., Anders, Y., & Taguma, M. (2015). Early childhood education and care policy review: Norway. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Retrieved from 08.08.2018 Care-Policy-Review-Norway.pdf

Ensminger, M. E., & Fothergill, K. (2003). A decade of measuring SES: What it tells us and where to go from here. In R. H. Bradley & M. H. Bornstein (Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development (pp. 13-29). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, K. L., & Olson, L. S. (2007). Early Schooling: The Handicap of Being Poor and Male. Sociology of Education, 80(2), 114-138. Retrieved from

European Commission. (2020). Early childhood education and care. Retrieved from childhood-education-and-care_en

Fabes, R. A., Martin, C. L., & Hanish, L. D. (2003). Young Children's Play Qualities in Same-, Other-, and Mixed-Sex Peer Groups. 74(3), 921-932. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00576

Fan, X., Fang, H., & Markussen, S. (2015). Mothers' Employment and Children's Educational Gender Gap National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper Series No. 21183. doi:10.3386/w21183

Farkas, G., & Beron, K. (2004). The detailed age trajectory of oral vocabulary knowledge: differences by class and race. Social Science Research, 33(3), 464-497. doi:

Fuhs, M. W., & Day, J. D. (2011). Verbal ability and executive functioning development in preschoolers at head start. Developmental Psychology, 47(2), 404-416. doi:10.1037/a0021065

Fuhs, M. W., Nesbitt, K. T., Farran, D. C., & Dong, N. (2014). Longitudinal associations between executive functioning and academic skills across content areas. Developmental Psychology, 50(6), 1698-1709. doi:10.1037/a0036633

Gathercole, S. E., & Pickering, S. J. (2000). Working memory deficits in children with low achievements in the national curriculum at 7 years of age. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(2), 177-194. doi:10.1348/000709900158047

Gestsdottir, S., von Suchodoletz, A., Wanless, S. B., Hubert, B., Guimard, P., Birgisdottir, F., McClelland, M. (2014). Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings From France, Germany, and Iceland. Applied Developmental Science, 18(2), 90-109. doi:10.1080/10888691.2014.894870

Ginsburg, H. P., & Pappas, S. (2004). SES, ethnic, and gender differences in young children's informal addition and subtraction: A clinical interview investigation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25(2), 171. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2004.02.003

Gonzales, C. R., Bowles, R., Geldhof, G. J., Cameron, C. E., Tracy, A., & McClelland, M. M. (2021). The Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Revised (HTKS-R): Development and psychometric properties of a revision to reduce floor effects. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 56, 320-332. doi:

Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding, Reading, and Reading Disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 6-10. doi:10.1177/074193258600700104

Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2006). Student-Teacher Relationships. In G. G. Bear & K. M. Minke (Eds.), Children's needs III: Development, prevention, and intervention. (pp. 59-71). Washington, DC, US: National Association of School Psychologists.

Harrison, L. J., & Wang, C. (2018). Current approaches in quantitative research an early childhood education. In M. Fleer & B. van Oers (Eds.), International handbook of early childhood education. doi:10.1007/978-94-024-0927-7

Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore: P.H. Brookes.

Havnes, T., & Mogstad, M. (2011). No Child Left Behind: Subsidized Child Care and Children's Long-Run Outcomes. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 3(2), 97-129.

Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis. A Regressoin-Based Approach. New York: The Guilford Press.

Hernández, M. M., Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Spinrad, T. L., Johns, S. K., Berger, R. H., Southworth, J. (2018). Self-Regulation and Academic Measures Across the Early Elementary School Grades: Examining Longitudinal and Bidirectional Associations. Early Education and Development, 29(7), 914-938. doi:10.1080/10409289.2018.1496722

Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R. M., Berk, L. E., & Singer, D. (2009). A Mandate for Playful Learning in Preschool: Presenting the Evidence. New York: Oxford University press, inc.

Hjetland, H. N., Brinchmann, E. I., Scherer, R., & Melby-Lervåg, M. (2017). Preschool predictors of later reading comprehension ability: a systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2017:14. doi:10.4073/csr.2017.14

Hoff, E. (2003). The Specificity of Environmental Influence: Socioeconomic Status Affects Early Vocabulary Development Via Maternal Speech. Child Development, 74(5), 1368-1378. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00612

Hoff, E., Laursen, B., & Bridges, K. (2012). Measurement and Model Building in Studying the Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Child Development. In M. Lewis & L. Mayes (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Environment in Human Development (pp. 590-606). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Hu, L. t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118

Hubert, B., Guimard, P., Florin, A., & Tracy, A. (2015). Indirect and Direct Relationships Between Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement During the Nursery/Elementary School Transition of French Students. Early Education and Development, 26(5-6), 685-707. doi:10.1080/10409289.2015.1037624

Hughes, C., Ensor, R., Wilson, A., & Graham, A. (2009). Tracking Executive Function Across the Transition to School: A Latent Variable Approach. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35(1), 20-36. doi:10.1080/87565640903325691

Huizinga, M., Dolan, C. V., & van der Molen, M. W. (2006). Age-related change in executive function: Developmental trends and a latent variable analysis. Neuropsychologia, 44(11), 2017-2036. doi:

Hyde, J. S. (2005). The gender similarities hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60(6), 581-592. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.60.6.581

Hyde, J. S. (2014). Gender Similarities and Differences. Annual Review of Psychology, 65(1), 373-398. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115057

Jensen, H., Pyle, A., Zosh, J. M., Ebrahim, H. B., Scherman, A. Z., Reunamo, J., & Hamre, B. H. (2019). Play facilitation: the science behind the art of engaging young children (white paper). The LEGO Foundation, DK.

Jordan, N. C., Glutting, J., & Ramineni, C. (2010). The importance of number sense to mathematics achievement in first and third grades. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(2), 82-88. doi:

Kalil, A., & Ryan, R. (2020). Parenting practices and socioeconomic gaps in childhood outcomes. The Future of Children 30, 29-54. doi:doi:10.1353/foc.2020.0004

Karlsen, L., & Lekhal, R. (2019). Practitioner involvement and support in children's learning during free play in two Norwegian kindergartens. 17(3), 233-246. doi:10.1177/1476718x19856390

Keller, H., Yovsi, R., Borke, J., Kärtner, J., Jensen, H., & Papaligoura, Z. (2004). Developmental Consequences of Early Parenting Experiences: Self-Recognition and Self-Regulation in Three Cultural Communities. 75(6), 1745-1760. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 8624.2004.00814.x

Kendeou, P., van den Broek, P., White, M. J., & Lynch, J. S. (2009). Predicting reading comprehension in early elementary school: The independent contributions of oral language and decoding skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 765-778. doi:10.1037/a0015956

Kjeldsaas, L., Friis, P., Johannesen, N., Renolen, M., & Emilsen, K. (2020). Ressurshefte for likestilt og likeverdig pedagogisk praksis. Retrieved from 01.02.2021 og-likeverdig-pedagogisk-praksis-i-barnehagen/

Kleven, T. A. (2008). Validity and validation in qualitative and quantitative research. Nordisk Pedagogik, 28, 219-233.

Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4. ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Leaper, C., & Friedman, C. K. (2007). The Socialization of Gender. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of Socialization: Theory and Research (pp. 561-588). New York: Guilford Press. Lekhal, R., Zachrisson, H. D., Wang, M. V., Schjølberg, S., & von Soest, T. (2011). Does universally accessible child care protect children from late talking? Results from a Norwegian population-based prospective study. Early Child Development and Care, 181(8), 1007-1019. doi:10.1080/03004430.2010.508558

Lenes, R., McClelland, M. M., ten Braak, D., Idsøe, T., & Størksen, I. (2020). Direct and indirect pathways from children's early self- regulation to academic achievement in fifth grade in Norway. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 53, 612-624. doi:

Lervåg, A., Bråten, I., & Hulme, C. (2009). The cognitive and linguistic foundations of early reading development: A Norwegian latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 764-781. doi:10.1037/a0014132

Lisøy, C., Holme, H., & Solheim, E. (2018). Den utviklingsstøttende barnehagen i Sandnes. Retrieved from Regionsenter for barn og unges psykiske helse. Helseregion Øst og Sør: 12.01.21 planer/rbup_den-utviklingsstottende-barnehagen.pdf

Little, T., D., Jorgensen, T. D., Lang, K. M., & Moore, W. G. (2014). On the Joys of Missing Data. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39(2), 151-162. doi:

Markussen, E., Frøseth, M. W., & Sandberg, N. (2011). Reaching for the Unreachable: Identifying Factors Predicting Early School Leaving and Non-Completion in Norwegian Upper Secondary Education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 55(3), 225-253. doi:10.1080/00313831.2011.576876

Matthews, J. S., Cameron Ponitz, C., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). Early gender differences in self-regulation and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 689-704. doi:10.1037/a0014240

McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., & Morrison, F. J. (2006). The impact of kindergarten learning-related skills on academic trajectories at the end of elementary school. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21(4), 471-490. doi:

McClelland, M. M., & Cameron, C. E. (2012). Self-Regulation in Early Childhood: Improving Conceptual Clarity and Developing Ecologically Valid Measures. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 136-142. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00191.x

McClelland, M. M., & Cameron, C. E. (2019). Developing together: The role of executive function and motor skills in children's early academic lives. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. doi:

McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Duncan, R., Bowles, R. P., Acock, A. C., Miao, A., & Pratt, M. E. (2014). Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(599). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00599 McClelland, M. M., Connor, C. M., Jewkes, A. M., Cameron, C. E., Farris, C. L., & Morrison, F. J. (2007). Links Between Behavioral Regulation and Preschoolers' Literacy, Vocabulary, and Math Skills. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 947-959. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.43.4.947

McClelland, M. M., Geldhof, J. G., Cameron, C. E., & Wanless, S. B. (2015). Development and Self-Regulation. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science. doi:10.1002/9781118963418.childpsy114

McClelland, M. M., Morrison, F. J., & Holmes, D. L. (2000). Children at risk for early academic problems: the role of learning-related social skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15(3), 307- 329. doi:

McClelland, M. M., Ponitz, C. C., Messersmith, E., & Tominey, S. (2010). Self-Regulation: The integration of cognition and emotion. In R. Lerner & W. Overton (Eds.), The Handbook of Life‐Span Development: Vol. 1. Cognition, biology and methods (pp. 509-553). Hoboken, NJ Wiley.

McClelland, M. M., Tominey, S. L., Schmitt, S. A., Hatfield, B. E., Purpura, D. J., Gonzales, C. R., & Tracy, A. N. (2019). Red Light, Purple Light! Results of an Intervention to Promote School Readiness for Children From Low-Income Backgrounds. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(2365). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02365

McTigue, E. M., Schwippert, K., Uppstad, P. H., Lundetræ, K., & Solheim, O. J. (2020). Gender differences in early literacy: Boys' response to formal instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1037/edu0000626

Meland, A. T., & Kaltvedt, E. H. (2017). Tracking gender in kindergarten. Early Child Development and Care, 1-10. doi:10.1080/03004430.2017.1302945

Melby-Lervåg, M., Lyster, S.-A. H., & Hulme, C. (2012). Phonological skills and their role in learning to read: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 138(2), 322-352. doi:10.1037/a0026744

Messick, S. (1995). Validity of Psychological Assessments. Validations of inferences from person's responses and performances as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50(9), 741-749.

Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The Unity and Diversity of Executive Functions and Their Contributions to Complex "Frontal Lobe" Tasks: A Latent Variable Analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49-100. doi:

Miyamoto, A., Pfost, M., & Artelt, C. (2018). Reciprocal relations between intrinsic reading motivation and reading competence: A comparison between native and immigrant students in Germany. Journal of Research in Reading, 41(1), 176-196. doi:

Montroy, J. J., Bowles, R. P., Skibbe, L. E., McClelland, M. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2016). The development of self-regulation across early childhood. Developmental Psychology, 52(11), 1744-1762. doi:10.1037/dev0000159

Moser, T., & Martinsen, M. T. (2010). The outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens as pedagogical space for toddlers' play, learning and development. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 18(4), 457-471. doi:10.1080/1350293X.2010.525931

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2012). Mplus User's Guide (Seventh ed.). Los Angeles, CA Muthén & Muthén.

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2018). Chi-Square Difference Testing Using the Satorra-Bentler Scaled Chi-Square. Retrieved from 09.10.18.

National Committee for Research Ethics in the Social Sciences and the Humanities. (2016). Guidelines for reserach ethics in the social aciences, humanities, law and theology. (4th ed.). Retrieved from 09.09.2019 publications/60127_fek_guidelines_nesh_digital_corr.pdf

National Early Literacy Panel. (2008). Developing early literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel. National Institute for Literacy. Washington, DC Retrieved from 01.09.20

National Mathematics Advisory Panel. (2008). Foundations for Success: The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC Retrieved from 08.07.18

NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2006). Child-care effect sizes for the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. 61, 99-116. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.61.2.99

Noble, K. G., Houston, S. M., Brito, N. H., Bartsch, H., Kan, E., Kuperman, J. M., . . . Genetics, S. (2015). Family Income, Parental Education and Brain Structure in Children and Adolescents. Nature neuroscience, 18(5), 773-778. doi:10.1038/nn.3983

Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. (2012). Kartleggingsprøve i regning 1 trinn. [Mandatory assessment test in math skills grade 1]. Oslo

Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. (2016a). Nasjonal prøve i leseforståelse 5 trinn. Veileder for lærere [Mandatory assessment test in reading comprehension, grade 5. Guidelines for teachers]. Oslo Retrieved from 02.07.18 prover/

Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. (2016b). Nasjonal prøve i matematikk 5 trinn. Veileder for lærer. [Mandatory assessment test in mathematics, grade 5. Guidelines for teachers]. Oslo Retrieved from 02.07.18 prover/

Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. (2018). Metode grunnlag for nasjonale prøver [Methodology for mandatory assessments]. Retrieved from 19.04.21 r/metodegrunnlag-for-nasjonale-prover-august-2018.pdf

Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. (2011). Framework Plan for the Content and Tasks of Kindergartens. Retrieved from nehager/engelsk/frameworkplanforthecontentandtasksofkinderg artens.pdf

Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. (2017). Framework Plan for Kindergartens. Contents and tasks. Retrieved from mework-plan-for-kindergartens2-2017.pdf

NOU 2019:3. (2019). Nye sjanser - bedre læring. Kjønnsforskjeller i skoleprestasjoner og utdanningsløp [New opportunities - better learning. Gender differences in school performance and education]. In Ministry of Education and Research (Ed.). Retrieved from 2019-3/id2627718/

NOU 2019:19. (2019). Jenterom, gutterom og mulighetsrom - Likestillingsutfordringer blant barn og unge. Oslo: Ministry of Culture Retrieved from 19.06.20 19/id2677658/

OECD. (2006). Starting Strong II: Early childhood education and care. Retrieved from Paris, France: 08.07.18. 06/0020/ddd/pdfv/290404-starting_strong_ii- early_childhood_education_and_care_-2006.pdf

OECD. (2015). The ABC of Gender Equality in Education: Aptitude, Behaviour, Confidence PISA, OECD, Publishing, Paris, doi:

OECD. (2016). PISA 2015 results (volum 1): Excellence and equity in education. Retrieved from 21.05.2019 https://www.oecd- m=5193D107E520B870B990CD36F414AD5D

OECD. (2018). Poverty rate (indicator) (Publication no. 10.1787/0fe1315d-en. Accessed on 04 May 2018).

Oh, S., & Lewis, C. (2008). Korean Preschoolers' Advanced Inhibitory Control and Its Relation to Other Executive Skills and Mental State Understanding. Child Development, 79(1), 80-99. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01112.x

Passaretta, G., & Skopek, J. (2018). Roots and Development of Achievement Gaps: A Longitudinal Assessment in Selected European Countries. ISOTIS Report (D 1.3): Trinity College Dublin.

Phillips, B. M., Clancy-Menchetti, J., & Lonigan, C. J. (2008). Successful Phonological Awareness Instruction With Preschool Children: Lessons From the Classroom. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 28(1), 3-17. doi:10.1177/0271121407313813

Portilla, X. A., Ballard, P. J., Adler, N. E., Boyce, W. T., & Obradović, J. (2014). An Integrative View of School Functioning: Transactions Between Self-Regulation, School Engagement, and Teacher-Child Relationship Quality. Child Development, 85(5), 1915-1931. doi:10.1111/cdev.12259

Powell, D. R., & Diamond, K. E. (2012). Promoting Early Literacy and Language Development. In R. C. Pianta (Ed.), Early Childhood Education (pp. 194-216). New York: The Guildford Press.

Rege, M., Solli, I. F., Størksen, I., & Votruba, M. (2018). Variation in center quality in a universal publicly subsidized and regulated childcare system. Labour Economics, 55, 230-240. doi:

Rege, M., Størksen, I., Solli, I. F., Kalil, A., McClelland, M. M., ten Braak, D., . . . Hundeland, P. S. (2019). Promoting child development in a universal preschool system: A field experiement. cesifo working paper NO. 7775. Retrieved from paper/promoting-child-development-universal-preschool- system-field

Reilly, D., Neumann, D. L., & Andrews, G. (2018). Gender differences in reading and writing achievement: Evidence from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). American Psychologist, 74(4), 445-458. doi:10.1037/amp0000356

Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2005). Survey of Early School Adjustment. Unpublished measure: University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA Retrieved from 08.07.18. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Pianta, R. C., & Cox, M. J. (2000). Teachers' Judgments of Problems in the Transition to Kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15(2), 147-166. Retrieved from N=EJ633365&scope=site

Rothbart, M. K., & Posner, M. I. (2005). Genes and experience in the development of executive attention and effortful control. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2005(109), 101-108. doi:10.1002/cd.142

Salminen, J., Guedes, C., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Pakarinen, E., & Cadima, J. (2021). Teacher-child interaction quality and children's self- regulation in toddler classrooms in Finland and Portugal. Infant and Child Development, n/a(n/a), e2222. doi:

Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2010). Ensuring positiveness of the scaled difference chi-square test statistic. Psychometrika, 75(2), 243- 248 doi:

Saxe, G. B., Guberman, S. R., & Gearhart, M. (1987). Social processes in early number development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 52(2). doi:

Schirmbeck, K., Rao, N., & Maehler, C. (2020). Similarities and differences across countries in the development of executive functions in children: A systematic review. Infant and Child Development, 29(1), e2164. doi:10.1002/icd.2164

Schjølberg, S., Lekhal, R., Wang, M. V., Zambrana, I. M., Mathiesen, K. S., Magnus, P., & Roth, C. (2008). Forsinket språkutvikling. En foreløpig rapport basert på data fra Den norske mor barn undersøkelsen. Oslo: Folkehelseinstituttet; 2008, rapport: 2008:1.

Schleicher, A. (2019). Helping our Youngest to Learn and Grow: Policies for Early Learning. International Summit on the Teaching Profession, OECD Publishing, Paris. doi:

Schmitt, S. A., Geldhof, G. J., Purpura, D. J., Duncan, R., & McClelland, M. M. (2017). Examining the relations between executive function, math, and literacy during the transition to kindergarten: A multi-analytic approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(8), 1120-1140. doi:10.1037/edu0000193

Schmitt, S. A., McClelland, M. M., Tominey, S. L., & Acock, A. C. (2015). Strengthening school readiness for Head Start children: Evaluation of a self-regulation intervention. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30, 20-31. doi:

Schmitt, S. A., Pratt, M. E., & McClelland, M. M. (2014). Examining the Validity of Behavioral Self-Regulation Tools in Predicting Preschoolers' Academic Achievement. Early Education and Development, 1-20. doi:10.1080/10409289.2014.850397

Sesma, H. W., Mahone, E. M., Levine, T., Eason, S. H., & Cutting, L. E. (2009). The Contribution of Executive Skills to Reading Comprehension. Child Neuropsychology, 15(3), 232-246. doi:10.1080/09297040802220029

Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D., T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. U.S.A.: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: the science of early childhood development. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Simonsen, H. G., Kristoffersen, K. E., Bleses, D., Wehberg, S., & Jørgensen, R. N. (2014). The Norwegian Communicative Development Inventories: Reliability, main developmental trends and gender differences. First Language, 34(1), 3-23.

Sirin, S. R. (2005). Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research. Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 417-453. doi:10.3102/00346543075003417

Sohr-Preston, S. L., Scaramella, L. V., Martin, M. J., Neppl, T. K., Ontai, L., & Conger, R. (2013). Parental Socioeconomic Status, Communication, and Children's Vocabulary Development: A Third-Generation Test of the Family Investment Model. 84(3), 1046-1062. doi:10.1111/cdev.12023

Solheim, O. J., Brønnvik, K., & Walgermo, B. R. (2013). Kartlegging av leseferdighet 1-3-trinn [Assessment of literacy skills grade 1-3]. Stangeland, E. B., Lundetræ, K., & Reikerås, E. (2018). Gender differences in toddlers' language and participation in language activities in Norwegian ECEC institutions. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 26(3), 375-392. doi:10.1080/1350293X.2018.1463905

Storch, S. A., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2002). Oral language and code-related precursors to reading: Evidence from a longitudinal structural model. Developmental Psychology, 38(6), 934-947. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.38.6.934

Streiner, D. L. (2005). Finding Our Way: An Introduction to Path Analysis. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50(2), 115-122. doi:10.1177/070674370505000207

Størksen, I., Ellingsen, I. T., Tvedt, M. S., & Idsøe, E. M. C. (2013). Norsk vokabulartest (NVT) for barn i overgangen mellom barnehage og skole. Psykometrisk vurdering av en nettbrettbasert test. Spesialpedagogikk, 04/13, 41-54. Retrieved from dagogikk/SP%20Forskningsartikler%202013/Artikkel%2004% 2013%20Størksen%20mfl.pdf

Størksen, I., Ellingsen, I. T., Wanless, S. B., & McClelland, M. M. (2015). The Influence of Parental Socioeconomic Background and Gender on Self-Regulation Among 5-Year-Old Children in Norway. Early Education and Development, 26(5-6), 663-684. doi:10.1080/10409289.2014.932238

Størksen, I., & Mosvold, R. (2013). Assessing early math skills with tablet computers: Development of the Ani Banani Math Test (ABMT) for young children. Paper presented at the Utdanning2020, The Norwegian Research Council, Oslo.

Størksen, I., Ten Braak, D., Breive, S., Lenes, R., Lunde, S., Carlsen, M., . . . Rege, M. (2016). Lekbasert læring i barnehagen - Et forskningsbasert førskoleopplegg fra Agderprosjektet: GAN Aschehoug.

Sylva, K., Sammons, P., Melhuish, E., Siraj, I., & Taggart, B. (2020). Developing 21st century skills in early childhood: the contribution of process quality to self-regulation and pro-social behaviour. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 23(3), 465-484. doi:10.1007/s11618-020-00945-x Teachstone Training. (2015). Why Class? Exploring the promise of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). Retrieved from 12.01.21 prod-gwphosting- no/2017/01/What_Is_CLASS_ebook_Final.pdf

ten Braak, D., Kleemans, T., Størksen, I., Verhoeven, L., & Segers, E. (2018). Domain-specific effects of attentional and behavioral control in early literacy and numeracy development. Learning and Individual Differences, 68, 61-71. doi:

ten Braak, D., & Størksen, I. (2021). Psychometric properties of the Ani Banani Math Test. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1-18. doi:10.1080/17405629.2021.1879046

ten Braak, D., Størksen, I., Idsoe, T., & McClelland, M. (2019). Bidirectionality in self-regulation and academic skills in play- based early childhood education. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 65, 101064. doi:

Toivainen, T., Papageorgiou, K. A., Tosto, M. G., & Kovas, Y. (2017). Sex differences in non-verbal and verbal abilities in childhood and adolescence. Intelligence, 64, 81-88. doi:

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Practitioner Review: Do performance-based measures and ratings of executive function assess the same construct? The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(2), 131-143. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12001

Trommsdorff, G. (2009). Culture and Development of Self-regulation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3(5), 687-701. doi:

Tuastad, S. E., Bjørnestad, E., & Alvestad, M. (2019). Contested quality: the struggle over quality, play and preschooling in Norwegian early childhood education and care. In S. Garvis & S. Phillipson (Eds.), Policification of Early Childhood Education and Care: Early Childhood Education in the 21st Century (Vol. III, pp. 154- 174). London: Routledge.

Tudge, J. R. H., Payir, A., Merçon-Vargas, E., Cao, H., Liang, Y., Li, J., & O'Brien, L. (2016). Still Misused After All These Years? A Reevaluation of the Uses of Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Theory of Human Development. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 8(4), 427-445. doi:

van de Schoot, R., Lugtig, P., & Hox, J. (2012a). A checklist for testing measurement invariance. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(4), 486-492. doi:10.1080/17405629.2012.686740

van de Schoot, R., Lugtig, P., & Hox, J. (2012b). Supplementary materials for the paper: A checklist for testing measurement invariance. European Journal of Developmental Psychology. Retrieved from 28.09.20 content/uploads/2017/01/2012-JA-RENS-Lugtig-A-checklist- for-measurement-invariance-Supplementary-Materials.pdf

Van der Ven, S. H. G., Kroesbergen, E. H., Boom, J., & Leseman, P. P. M. (2012). The development of executive functions and early mathematics: A dynamic relationship. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 100-119. doi:10.1111/j.2044- 8279.2011.02035.x

Veziroglu-Celik, M., Garcia, A., Acar, I. H., Gonen, M., Raikes, H., Korkmaz, A., . . . Colgrove, A. (2018). Family context of low- income young children and their self-regulation in the United States and Turkey. Early Child Development and Care, 1-13. doi:10.1080/03004430.2018.1548442

von Suchodoletz, A., Gestsdottir, S., Wanless, S. B., McClelland, M. M., Birgisdottir, F., Gunzenhauser, C., & Ragnarsdottir, H. (2013). Behavioral self-regulation and relations to emergent academic skills among children in Germany and Iceland. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(1), 62-73. doi:

Walhovd, K. B. (2014). Kjønnsforskjeller i et kognitivt- nevrovitenskaplig perspektiv. [Gender differences in a cognitive- neuroscientific perspective]. In E. Backe-Hansen, K. B. Walhovd, & L. R. f. Huang (Eds.), Kjønnsforskjeller i skoleprestasjoner. En kunnskapsoversikt. [Gender differences in school performance]. NOVA rapport 5/14. Norsk institutt for forskning om oppvekst, velferd og aldring.

Wang, J., & Wang, X. (2012). Structural Equation Modeling: Applications Using Mplus (Vol. 12). Chichester, UK: Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wanless, S. B., McClelland, M. M., Lan, X., Son, S.-H., Cameron, C. E., Morrison, F. J., . . . Sung, M. (2013). Gender differences in behavioral regulation in four societies: The United States, Taiwan, South Korea, and China. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(3), 621-633. doi:

Wanless, S. B., McClelland, M. M., Tominey, S. L., & Acock, A. C. (2011). The Influence of Demographic Risk Factors on Children's Behavioral Regulation in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten. Early Education and Development, 22(3), 461- 488. doi:

Weiland, C., Barata, M. C., & Yoshikawa, H. (2014). The Co-Occurring Development of Executive Function Skills and Receptive Vocabulary in Preschool-Aged Children: A Look at the Direction of the Developmental Pathways. Infant and Child Development, 23(1), 4-21. doi:10.1002/icd.1829

Weis, M., Heikamp, T., & Trommsdorff, G. (2013). Gender differences in school achievement: The role of self-regulation. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 442-442. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00442

Welsh, J. A., Nix, R. L., Blair, C., Bierman, K. L., & Nelson, K. E. (2010). The development of cognitive skills and gains in academic school readiness for children from low-income families. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(1), 43-53. doi:10.1037/a0016738

Wiebe, S. A., Espy, K. A., & Charak, D. (2008). Using confirmatory factor analysis to understand executive control in preschool children: I. Latent structure. Developmental Psychology, 44(2), 575-587. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.44.2.575

Yeung, W. J., Linver, M. R., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2002). How Money Matters for Young Children's Development: Parental Investment and Family Processes. Child Development, 73(6), 1861-1879. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00511

Zambrana, I. M., Ogden, T., & Zachrisson, H. D. (2020). Can Pre- Academic Activities in Norway's Early Childhood Education and Care Program Boost Later Academic Achievements in Preschoolers at Risk? Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 64(3), 440-456. doi:10.1080/00313831.2019.1577751

Zambrana, I. M., Ystrom, E., & Pons, F. (2012). Impact of Gender, Maternal Education, and Birth Order on the Development of Language Comprehension: A Longitudinal Study from 18 to 36 Months of Age. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 33(2), 146-155. doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e31823d4f83
Cover for Development of self-regulation and academic skills: The role of child factors, socioeconomic status, and cultural context
November 5, 2021